The formation of the Basic Competences of Pupils on Navigation as a Pedagogical Problem

students_studyTo develop conceptual provisions of formation of the basic competencies of high school students on navigation singled out the need for detailed retrospective study and the study of scientific-pedagogical literature on the direction of training high school students to professional selection and training of specialists of Maritime industry and aimed at forming professional competences. A deep analysis of the scientific works of these directions will allow you to figure out the relevance of identified problems and to outline possible ways of its solution.

The conducted researches showed that the solution of problems of formation of high school students, their professional choices, readiness to future professional activity is devoted to a number of scientific works.

In particular, the study of A. P. Mikitenko, an important achievement, in our opinion, is the “development of pedagogical theory for improving the development of cognitive activity of senior pupils through a specially organized information and educational environment of the school, which fostered a subjective position of a student and ensuring learning through interdisciplinary connections with the use of information and communication technologies in the classroom technologies [1, p. 5].

Education life prospects of high school students in extracurricular activities was devoted to the work of W. L. Chulanova [2], which is substantiated by psychological and pedagogical prerequisites for the formation of life prospects of high school students in extracurricular activities; determined the content, forms and methods of education life prospects of senior pupils in the process of social and cultural activities. Formation of readiness of senior pupils to make a conscious choice of future profession type “man-technique” in the process of educational work L. was investigated.

Kulinenko, [3], which developed scientific and methodological support of the process of professional orientation of high school students in modular technology, including motivational, informational, diagnostic and correctional and proaktivno and content structure of the diagnostic-remedial vocational tests and tests that can become the basis for diagnostic and remedial programs of professional orientation of senior pupils.

The study shows that the adequate choice of a profession acts as a set of indicators such as theoretical knowledge, practical skills and vocational and psychological development in their compliance with the requirements of the profession. The technique of formation of readiness of students to independent occupations by physical exercises were studied by V. V. Zakhozhiy [4].

Scientists adopted a definition of motivational-value attitude to independent employments by physical exercises as an integrative quality of personality that involves focused and active in teaching, a high level of interest and motivation for physical culture, shows a high degree of autonomy in the exercise. The obtained results show that the main criteria of motivational-value component of readiness of students to independent occupations by physical exercises is the interest in physical culture, motives for exercise, directivity of value orientations, a systematic physical activities.

The essence of professional selection as a spiritual and practical nature of the person of the senior pupil has allocated A. Y. Pashchenko [5]. The researcher revealed signs of choice of future profession of a police officer in the senior school age, in particular its value in nature, phasing and consistency.

In solving the problem of formation of readiness of senior pupils to professional self-determination in the sphere of technical activities in extra-curricular institutions. V. Matuski [6] has developed a targeted comprehensive program of formation of readiness to professional self-determination of students in the area of technical activities and improved the content of the programmes of the technical groups and developed guidelines for practitioners out-of-school educational institutions.

According to the researcher, the use of materials will help pedagogical workers of school educational institutions, heads of technical programmes to raise the level of preparation of students to conscious choice of future profession.

Separate general-didactic tendencies of scientists in the plane of definition of the content of education (B. Cooper, J. Gorin, L. G., V. Sinkevicius, M. klarin, A. Nesterenko, G. Paznic, V. Palamarchuk, P. Juceviciene, etc.) were aimed at solving problems training and development the training of marine specialties to future professional activities.

Researchers (V. Golubev, N. Gusakov, N. Utahn, V. Zakharchenko, M. Miyusov, Yu. Pavlichenko, etc.) justify the necessity of improving the system of training of specialists of the Navy. They argue that this process should occur continuously and rapidly since the development of science and technology, the marine industry requires specialists in Maritime industries solution-new integrated task and, accordingly, the formation of appropriate organizational and pedagogical conditions of their training.

For example, the pedagogical conditions of forming of readiness for professional activity of future experts in higher Maritime educational institutions determined for the first time M. V. Kulakov [7, p. 19]; clarifies the nature of concepts “preparation for professional activity of specialists of Maritime professions”, “readiness for professional activity of the marine specialists”, “pedagogical conditions”; and defined the functions of pedagogical control; characterized by groups of components specified availability; developed and experimentally tested modular technology of formation of readiness, which consisted of three blocks (cognitive, motivational, practical and corrective).

Readiness for professional activity of the marine specialists she defines as “an integrative quality of the personality, manifested in forms of activity and allows to perform the appropriate typical problems of professional activities, to foresee the ways to increase productivity in the professional way [7, p. 17 ]”.

In this thesis V. M. Titawin [8, p. 21] studied the “psychological basis of personality-oriented training of cadets at the higher naval school. The author analyzes the modern condition of vocational training of cadets of the naval UNIVERSITY, identified the psychological factors of implementation in the higher naval school student centered learning with naval characteristics. Created a psychological portrait of a naval officer, identified psychodiagnostic indicators of personal development of students during their studies at the naval war College, the influence of the traditional educational process on the personality of the future naval officer.

Developed a conceptual model for student centered learning with the naval specific, defined methods of its implementation in the educational process and experimentally tested the efficiency of its operation in the naval College. Methodical recommendations for the implementation of student centered learning in the educational process of the UNIVERSITY on the basis of accounting and use its psychological foundations”.

The first comprehensive study of the problem covering the training of specialists for the marine fleet in Ukraine in the last quarter of XVIII – at the beginning of the twentieth century. was the scientific work of V. V. Black. Features of work lies in the fact that the author “reveals the background of the black sea Maritime training institutions, determined by the characteristics of political and economic development of the region in the last quarter of XVIII – early XIX century. Made theoretical generalizations concerning the activities of Maritime training schools in Ukraine in the era of sailing fleet, which was based on the basis of certain Maritime regulations principles of formation of ships, military and commercial vessels.

It is proved that in the era of the armored fleet, the development of professional education of seafarers in Ukraine is associated with the creation of a new system of educational institutions and the introduction of a clear scheme of manning the Navy solely by the graduates of the colleges and schools of the Maritime profile. In the work studied in depth the device Maritime training institutions, the system of management and financing, as well as the role of Maritime colleges of the southern Ukraine in securing the black sea fleet and private Maritime companies and companies qualified professionals [9, p. 12-13]”.

The problem of formation of ecological competence in educational theory and educational practice of higher technical educational institutions of the investigated E. Kurenkova. Author details displays the status, characteristics, problems and possibilities of improvement of process of formation of ecological competence of future specialists of water transport, taking into account requirements of Bologna Declaration.

The paper presents organizational-methodical model of formation of ecological competence of future specialists of water transport in the conditions of credit-modular system of training; defined by its components, contents and socio-pedagogical value.

The basis of the model is tribally construct, the content of the components of which are interdependent and vzaimoponimanii. The model covers in detail-technological and social-ethical aspects of educational and future professional activity of students, provides an opportunity to reconcile the objectives of training and education.

Identified and structured, component-criterial attributes of ecological competence: the axiological (value-motivational; cognitive (snano-substantial); activity and practice (practical-technological), which had a manifestation on the three levels: low (reproductive), secondary (reconstructive), high (creative). The study revealed the continuity of the content of ecological education, due to different qualification levels and system modules” [10, p. 21]”.

The first in Ukraine complex research of the informational-legal bases of ensuring navigation safety is the thesis of D. A. Ivanov. The researcher defined the concept and content of information legal relations in the sphere of Maritime security. Revealed the legal nature of the concept of “legal-technical norms” as a separate type of information and legal standards. Defined the concept of “information and legal support” in activities associated with search and rescue at sea. The classification of information legal regulations in the field of safety of navigation in accordance with the purposes and rules for their application [11, C. 17].

Based on the integrated analysis of the regulatory support and practical activities of the authorized bodies in the sphere of ensuring safety of navigation the author gives proposals to improve legislation of Ukraine, regulatory legal information navigation safety.

1. Developed a system of pedagogical support polpropylene the training of managers for merchant Navy, including regulatory, scientific, informational, socio-psychological, methodological and technological components of the system.

2. Developed polpropylene and communicative approach to construction of educational process of training future managers of MTF, which is the analysis of polpropylene-cognitive tasks, industrial and cultural features of the activities of partners, including foreign.

3. Developed a procedural model for the formation and development polpropylene-cogntive and communicative competence of students on the basis of the content of training that matches future activities and use of the situational-functional approach to create a current educational situation, which requires relevant professional students.

4. Created a meaningful model of professional training of managers of the merchant Navy, based on the types of future activity, adequate forms of organization of educational process.

5. Developed criteria of formation polpropylene-communicative competence (motivational and valuable, cognitive, operational and reflective).

6. Disclosed in the content of the activity Manager the essential pedagogical components.

An important contribution to the development of the Maritime industry implemented S. V. butsenko [12], who researched in details the legal framework governing the staffing of ship crews in Ukraine. In particular, they proposed the concept of development of the national legal system of manning of the ship crew (officers of the level control).

 valuable for solving the problems considered in our study are certain aspects of training of skippers, which is reflected in some provisions of the dissertation research of S. V. butsenko, in particular [12, p. 11-12]:

 professional orientation of future navigators, that is, the user the choice of profession of the shipmaster, assistance in choosing a career most suited to individual characteristics, inclinations and talent, requires improvement at the level of legal support;

 highlights the participation of shipowners in the information, financial, methodological and organizational support of the activity of state bodies and other entities that today have carried out professional orientation;

– the shortcomings of the system of professional training, certification (certification), approval of competence and assessment (professional development) of skippers negatively affect the quality of the staffing of crews;

– legal regulation of the procedure of lawpractice in modern conditions is absent;

– departmental documents of the USSR are outdated and do not correspond to the actual status and the requirements of time;

– Maritime UNIVERSITIES have to run the program lawpractice, seeking support from heads of Maritime agencies, crewing bureaus, agencies, private shipowners and the like;

– naturally, the effectiveness of such lawpractice reflected in the quality of training of skippers and their level of competence in employment;

– transition on the qualification levels of the navigation hierarchy, followed by additional training at courses of improvement of qualification (CPC).

Scientific study of the theoretical and practical aspects of the training and certification of seafarers of Ukraine work T. V. Averochkina [13], where on the basis of a systematic analysis of international agreements and national legislation of Ukraine the author defines the need for harmonization, legal nature and types of standards contained in the International Convention on standards of training, certification of seafarers and Watchkeeping of 1978 the Study of standards training and certification of members of crews of vessels in accordance with the International Convention on standards of training, certification of seafarers and Watchkeeping of 1978 gave her the opportunity to see that the document of unified requirements (standards) for certain categories of crew members and amount of minimum knowledge, skills and abilities depend on the levels of responsibility that are assigned to each of them.

In particular, the author found that “the state of the international labour market shows that Ukraine is among the top five vendors command of seafarers and ranked sixth as supplier ranks. The current legislation of Ukraine, as the law of many other States, when regulating the relations of seamen abroad uses typical kolesino binding – the law of the flag of the vessel.

Thus, seafarers in employment on vessels of foreign shipowners find themselves in a legal field of the flag state of the vessel (contract of employment (contract) is with the national legislation of the flag state of the vessel), and must provide the documents required by the national law of that state, which in most cases complicates and delays the process of employment. The basic condition of employment is the availability of professional education and the relevant documents proving it.

The requirements for professional education (standards) usually contain certain differences in each individual state. Here is reflected the application of peremptory norms in the regulation of international private law relations. According to article 14 of the Law “On international private law” rules of this Law do not limit the actions of the mandatory rules of the law of Ukraine regulating the corresponding relations irrespective of the right subject to application.

The court, irrespective of the law applicable according to this Law, may apply the mandatory law of another state, is closely associated with the relevant relations, with the exception specified in the first part of this article and shall take into account the purpose and nature of such norms, and the consequences of their application or non-application [13, p. 7].

Its time the organizational-legal bases of management of marine safety investigated V. A. Seleznev. On the basis of deep study of the open problems, the author comes to the conclusion that “to ensure the safety of navigation apply both specific and conventional means of administrative influence. Among the specific administrative preventive means analyzes a ban on the release of the vessel from the sea port to meteorological and other reasons, the grounds for the examination of vessels and other specific administrative and preventive measures.

Among the specific administrative measures, the author examines the powers of regulatory authorities (register, marine inspection, etc.), to halt work on the vessels and objects, the prohibition of their operation in case of violation of established rules and requirements to prevent pollution of the natural environment.

A detailed analysis of the powers of the captain of the ship (article 68 KTM) on the audit” [14]. The need to improve safety of navigation encourages the creation of special international and national bodies (organizations), the latter does not meet international requirements, so the author of the thesis is a proposal for the implementation of their legal Statute.

 Even 2001, studying the methods of structuring of the subject environment for a computer system of certification of seafarers Yu. V. Paschenko considered system of training, retraining, and certification of seafarers are merchant fleet. “The study of methods of teaching and the use of automated learning systems which have been undertaken in this area, allowed him to identify deficiencies and justify the need to develop integrated computer-based learning systems and knowledge control of seafarers. The study results of the works published on the subject of training and control of knowledge of different specialists, to determine the deficiencies that exist in the design and operation of these systems [15,5]:

 lack of integration of various computer tools of learning, within an enterprise or organization with the aim of diverse qualification and certification of level of training;

 there is no method of determining the necessary amount and level of knowledge of a particular specialist for seafarers that focuses on computer implementation and provides the automated selection of knowledge in the system of knowledge control;

 no methods for structuring the environment associated with the professional activities of seafarers, and accordingly, is not substantiated by the data model for the database build integrated computer-based learning systems and knowledge control of seafarers;

– when building a multilevel menu database of computer learning systems and knowledge control, by increasing the level branching data structure, a decrease in the efficiency of the machine representation of data relative to memory access time to data, and reliability of the system during its adaptation to conditions of use.

However, you can make the assumption that some of the mentioned disadvantages remain the same today.
The first solution to the problem of improving the reliability of ship power plants, aimed at ensuring the health and maintaining the health of the main element of the system, the human operator was raised V. A. Golikov [16, p. 34], using a systematic approach to the principles of hygienic standardization of environmental factors and working conditions on the ship, developed the theoretical basis for the design of systems of marine microclimate.

Valuable, in our opinion, is the scientific study of mathematical models of processes in the system elements, which establish a quantitative relationship between the environment of the ship, the health of marine specialists and production activities.

The results of studies on the design of optimal multivariable controllers comfort, building a collective security system on tankers-gas tankers and namonastrevi systems of automatic process control conditioning climate may be applicable in the research activities of navigators, with an emphasis on the importance of continuous improvement of their skills in accordance with the automation of the functioning of the vessel.

Implementation I. V. Sokolov [17, p. 8] study and analysis of scientific achievements in the plane of professional training of specialists of Maritime industry has allowed him to characterize the relevant information on the Maritime training institutes.

Important for further study identified in our work the problems contained data on the content of educational and vocational training programmes and educational qualification characteristics of the vessel, which represents 646 elements of the characteristics of this profession, of which the cognitive component of his training involves elements of 519, which is 80.8%, with active – 123 item that is 19.2%. Interestingly, the requirement of a personal nature, the researcher will take part of the action component and proposes to distinguish between four positions of the 123 presented here.

The process of self-control in physical education as a means of improving motivation for professional-applied physical training of students-navigators discussed in detail in the A. I. Podlesnaya. The author carried out the scientific analysis of the problems of modern physical education system future navigators allowed him to figure out what a significant impact this process is having the motivation to professional activities. In particular, in its structure most conducive spot finds achievement motivation, which can be formed under certain pedagogical conditions of organization of educational process in high school.

With the purpose of formation of motivation was developed by organizational-methodical conditions of self-control in physical training of students as a factor of its formation, aimed at understanding business objectives and achieve its outcomes through self-regulation of their own behavior through internal motivation of self-improvement with a focus on proper standards and progress of their own achievements and external stimuli created by the teacher [18].

 Considering the specifics of professional training of future skippers and working conditions during marine practices and future professional activities revealed the following;

 the unevenness of the educational process, which is necessary to stay on long sea practice and implementation of service activities in accordance with the statutory requirements as cadets stationary students and correspondence forms of training;

 professionally-oriented focus of the educational content of disciplines, all cycles on a particular type of profession that provides an introduction to the structure of the study programmes of individual disciplines of the professionally oriented sections;

– strengthen the role of independent work of cadets and students as an important factor influencing its quality, due to the fact that independent performance of professional duties requires the subject’s conscious and creative professional thinking, high level of personality self-organization and self-regulation.

A common feature of the educational process of future skippers and their future professional activity from the position of acquisition of new knowledge, skills and abilities is a shortage of direct access to sources of educational information, insufficient number of classes, practices and trainings, the unevenness of workload, the backlog of traditional textbooks and teaching materials from the demands of society and the international community of employers, an avalanche-like flow of educational, technological, legal, political information is presented primarily in English who needs to study, understand and use the Navigator in terms of time limit.

Regularities of formation of foreign language communicative competence of future specialists of the Navy in the process of learning a foreign language is studied by S. V. Kazak. Valuable for our study are the theoretical achievements of the author about the nature and structure of the phenomenon of foreign language communicative competence as professionally important qualities of specialist.

Identified by researcher as “objective factors, delay the practical use of THEM with a professional goal of future professionals of the Navy, is the low level of preparation for foreign language speech communication with foreign partners that it carries out Maritime University; unformed of professional vocabulary and the main types of foreign language oral speech activities; ignorance of the basics of business foreign language; lack of building skills of dialogical speech and conduct of foreign language professionally oriented conversation.

Subjective factors that reduce the effectiveness of communication of future specialists of the Navy with foreign partners through foreign broadcast were: the insufficient level of development of their communicative abilities, and skills; lack of technology and culture communication, uncertainty and fear to communicate in a foreign language” [19, p. 13].

Generalization of studies on scientific research and developments (G. Borodin, N. Demidenko, Yu. Efimova, I. L. Zaytseva Sarca, N. Kostenko, I. Lulic, A. Romen, Y. Solodovnikova, N. Sherman, etc.), enables to make the assumption that today for effective Maritime search and rescue in the area of responsibility of Ukraine should:

1. To improve the legal regulation of information activities of Maritime search and rescue system of the Ministry of transport and communications and the national system of marine search and rescue, based on information interaction between the Central bodies of Executive power.

2. To promote international cooperation in information support of search and rescue at sea, using the positive world experience.

3. To ensure the functioning of an integrated system for monitoring information of the surface of the situation.

4. To develop navigational and hydrographic, hydrometeorological and other types of information support for the integration and efficient use of facilities and different departments.

5. Include the development and adoption (regulation of the Cabinet of Ministers) of the unified technical and legal requirements to ensure the readiness of forces and means for search and rescue in the area of responsibility of Ukraine.”

Working through the problem of applying situational communication technologies in communicative language teaching future navigators V. Kostyuk proves that its decision “due to the modern requirements to the content of education, the quality of the graduates, and by uniqueness of the profession of a sailor, which requires not only the promotion of safety of navigation and protection of life at sea, but also the ability to work in international crews, adhering to international requirements Watchkeeping, maintenance of ships and interaction in normal and extreme situations” [20].

The value of the delivery of communicative teaching methods in students of educational establishments of marine areas N. Demidenko [21] associates with the “availability (or absence) of a textbook for students, books for teachers, specialized vocabulary and supplementary materials that were developed on the basis of the subject.

The content or update of training materials English for seafarers has an assignment for language teachers working in the Department of ESP (English for specific purposes). Materials for independent work of students-sailors form a special type of training materials because they meet the needs of students in independent receiving, viewing, organizing, updating their knowledge and communication skills, thus filling the gap between linguistic activities in the classroom and practical work in a multilingual crew of a merchant ship”.

In result of investigations it was proposed to use terminography essay as a specific type of the educational materials recommended in the independent work of the students in the study of Maritime English. The author believes that this approach will contribute to the production of the original language examples due to the introduction of purely verbal means.

In the context of the study we have carried out the analysis of approaches to solving problems that relate to the process of training marine specialists. The above views of scientists and researchers who systematically investigated the problem of training marine specialists of different categories, indicate that each author’s proposed solution proposes to develop the corresponding component, which is directed on formation of personal and professional qualities.

Psychological and pedagogical literature describes the formation of the basic competences of pupils as a multi-faceted complex problem on a number of issues that relate to the management of social processes:

– appropriate logical resources;
– choice personality in professional direction;
– education of the person;
– adaptation to the future profession.

However, in the process of detailed analysis of the scientific studies have not discovered a deep, holistic solutions the formation of the basic competences of pupils for navigation and such, which examine and distinguish the factors influencing their development.

Conclusion. Therefore, the problem of formation of basic competencies of high school students with the navigation, the definition of its structure, the study of factors influencing the development of its component is relevant and timely to perform enough of one socio-economic objective, which is to increase the competitiveness of sea experts.

Carried out a thorough analysis of the studies revealing the problems of training of navigators and possible ways of their solutions shows that in recent years a large number of scientific studies in this direction, however, the scientists insufficient attention paid to the aspect of the formation of basic competencies of high school students on navigation in the process of profile training.
The problem of formation of basic competencies of high school students on navigation in the process of profile training remains open, therefore, to review and study existing approaches (systems, technologies) and, subsequently, the allocation nidocin of them for use in the classroom consider relevant and necessary.

Seems to be extremely important in understanding the effectiveness of approaches from a methodological and methodical positions, deep disclosure of their contents, disclosure and analysis of technological aspects in order to determine the extent of their influence on the formation of basic competencies of high school students on navigation in the process of profile training.

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