Information technologies and education

infotehAbstract. The development of modern society on the basis of knowledge and highly effective technologies requires making corrections in pedagogical theory and practice, activating the search for new models of education aimed at raising the level of qualifications and professional skills of teachers, meeting the needs of society in specialists capable of successful adaptation and selfrealization in the information society.

Thus, the main task of vocational education is the implementation of such a model for the training of a qualified specialist, which in the future will allow him to compete successfully in the labor market, effectively implement his professional skills in the acquired specialty with high creative personal potential.

The use of information and communication technologies (ICT) opens up new opportunities in the teaching of its subject, allows increasing the effectiveness of training, the intellectual level of trainees, instilling the skills of self-education, self-organization, and facilitating the solution of practical problems. There was an opportunity to increase the visibility in the teaching process.

The use of computer technology makes it possible to make every occupation unconventional, bright, rich, memorable. The modern teacher deals with various kinds of professional activity: teaching, educational, scientific, methodical, managerial. He has different opportunities to use computer or information technologies to receive, transfer, organize, process information, and also to communicate between colleagues, students, their parents, etc. Informatization of education puts forward the requirements of the correspondence of the professional training of teachers.

Therefore, one of the global goals of the informatization of education is the training of teachers who are ready and able to apply new information technologies in the process of teaching and managing education that actively participate in the process of informatization of education. The use of ICT in education allows not only to take a fresh look at the pedagogical process, but also provides the necessary scientific and methodological apparatus for their analysis and updating. In addition, ICTs have a significant impact on the content of education and the management of the pedagogical process (planning, organization, monitoring, forecasting, etc.).

Traditional training of specialists, focused on the formation of knowledge, abilities and skills in the subject area, is still lagging behind modern requirements Therefore, the formation of a system of knowledge, abilities and skills in the use of information and communication technologies in education is a priority task for the implementation of which it is necessary to have: the ability to generalize, analyze, and perceive information; readiness to use the main methods, ways and means of obtaining, storing, processing information, willingness to work with a computer as a means of information management; the ability to work with information in global computer networks; the ability to understand the essence and importance of information in the development of the modern information society, to understand the dangers and threats arising in this process, to comply with the basic requirements of information security; the ability to develop modern pedagogical technologies, taking into account the features of the educational process, the tasks of upbringing and development of the individual.

The profession of the teacher becomes more complex, multifaceted, but also more interesting from the point of view of the disclosure of abilities and self-realization. The teacher has to develop and implement new pedagogical technologies on the basis of rapidly developing information and telecommunication capabilities, taking into account modern scientific and production technologies, which requires deep knowledge in the field of pedagogy, psychology, informatics, etc., mastering the methods of scientific knowledge, formed research type of thinking.

It is possible to create a successfully functioning and time-appropriate model of professional training for a future specialist only on the basis of the continuous introduction of pedagogical innovations into the practice of the educational process. Innovation in educational activities is the wide-scale use, first of all, of new technologies of teaching and organization of educational process in the university for obtaining results in the form of educational services that differ social and market demand.

In this context, traditional learning technology is a certain way of learning, in which the main task of implementing a function is performed by a person under the control of a person. In the traditional technology of teaching, the leading role is assigned to the means of instruction: the teacher does not teach students, but performs the functions of stimulating and coordinating their activities, as well as the management function of the learning tool.

Teacher’s pedagogical skill consists in selecting the necessary content, applying the best methods and means of teaching in accordance with the program and pedagogical tasks.

The modern teacher in his activity continuously solves the following problems: theoretical and practical:

use theoretical and practical knowledge for designing, implementing and methodological support of the pedagogical process; select and analyze information; Independently or in co-authorship, to create new information on its basis; use information technology in the pedagogical process, in their own research activities, in organizing research activities of students; to develop educational and methodical complexes using information technologies; carry out experimental work and the like; technological nature: design and implement educational and training programs of different focus and different levels; use a variety of methods to assess the achievements of students, etc.; communicative: use various means of communication to communicate with colleagues and students (e-mail, social networks, the Internet, multimedia, etc.); reflexive character: generalization of own achievements and problems, search of new ways of their solution; social character: orient yourself in a sociocultural situation, using its opportunities to ensure the quality of education; To expand the circle of social partners through interaction of students with them; Organize communities of students and educators; To be responsible for the quality of education and the results of the activities of students.

The new requirements of society to the level of education and personal development have already led to a change in the technology of education. Today, innovative technologies allow to organize the educational process taking into account the professional orientation of the training, as well as orientation of the student’s personality to his interests, inclinations and abilities. Among them the leading place belongs to species such as student-centered learning, problem-based learning, test forms of knowledge control, block-modular training, project-based learning, case method, the creditmodular system of evaluation, cooperative learning, multilevel training, conducting a binary lesson, distance learning.

As a result of their implementation, the functions of both the teacher and the student radically change. The teacher becomes a consultant coordinator, since it performs an information-monitoring function, and students are given greater independence in the choice of ways to assimilate the educational material.

The introduction of innovative educational technologies provides ample opportunities for the development of the process of differentiation and individualization of educational activities. The result of applying innovative educational technologies depends to a lesser extent on the skill of the teacher, but is determined by the totality of its components.

Innovative educational technologies are associated with increasing the effectiveness of education and upbringing and are aimed at the final result of the educational process – the training of highly qualified specialists with fundamental and applied knowledge; Capable of successfully mastering new, professional and managerial areas; To respond flexibly and dynamically to changing social and economic conditions; Possessing high moral and civil qualities in conditions of innovative educational space.

One of the most important problems of successful implementation of innovative technologies is the didactic problem – the problem of teaching methods. Depending on its solution, the learning process itself, the activity of the teacher and students, and consequently, the result of training, are found. The method is a way to advance to the truth. The success of training depends mainly on the direction and internal activity of trainees, the nature of their activities, the degree of independence, the manifestation of creativity and should serve as an important criterion for choosing a method.

Whatever methods of training nor used to enhance the effectiveness of vocational training is important to create such psychological and pedagogical conditions in which a student can take an active personal position and to fully manifest itself as the subject of learning activities. The didactic principle of personality activity in teaching and professional self-determination causes the system to require the student’s academic activity and pedagogical activity of the teacher in a single educational process.

This system includes external and internal factors, needs and motives. The ratio of these characteristics determines the choice of the content of upbringing, the specific forms and methods of instruction, the conditions for organizing the entire process of forming an active creative personality. There are no universally effective or ineffective methods. All methods of training have their strengths and weaknesses, and therefore, depending on the purposes, conditions, available time, they should be optimally combined.

The quality of training can be achieved only as a result of ensuring the effectiveness of each level of training. That is, the entire learning process is built according to the following scheme: to perceive, comprehend, remember, apply, verify. To achieve quality training, it is necessary to consistently go through all these levels of cognitive activity. Using a variety of forms and methods in the learning process contributes to improving the quality of teaching.

The main forms and methods of teaching that contribute to improving the quality of education in the use of innovative technologies are: role games, business games, seminars, recapitulation, conferences, debates, dialogues, problem training, independent work, the protection of abstracts, individual work, creative essays, Reports, reports; Testing, programmed control, research work, etc.

To achieve efficiency from the use of teaching methods, you need to create a psychological portrait of the group and find out what methods can be applied and which can not. Proceeding from this conditionally methods can be divided into two groups: methods that do not require special prior training (problem training, execution of actions by the algorithm) and methods that require special prior preparation (self-study, self-study at the lesson).

It is known that in groups the preponderance of students unprepared for independent work can not be immediately given material for independent study (if this is not possible, the teacher should carefully develop the task, taking into account the group, the level of their preparation, clearly formulate questions, draw up methodological recommendations,. And here it is impossible to neglect the two principles of didactics: strength and learning at a high level, difficulties. The emotional state of the student largely determines mental and physical performance.

The high emotional tone of the audience and its involvement in the learning process ensures the implementation of the disclosure of student student reserves. If there is no psychological comfort in the class, then other incentives for learning and cognitive activity are paralyzed, the main value of the relationship between the teacher and students is their cooperation, which involves a joint search, joint analysis.

To assess competencies, you can use the above criteria and indicators Knowledge: the main trends and trends in the development of new educational technologies; Methods and methods of using ICT tools in various types and forms of educational activities; The selection criteria and the main characteristics of the technical means used in the educational process; The possibility of using on the basis of ICT tools for monitoring the development of the educational process; Various innovative didactic approaches; Skills: choose effective methodical techniques, technical and informational tools to achieve the goal of the training course; Use ICT tools for educational purposes; Have the skills to develop teaching materials using ICT tools; To search for educational information (electronic textbooks, tests) on the Internet; Create application software (PPP); To develop scenarios and create multimedia teaching aids with the help of software tools; To create electronic tests using the tool software; Use test shells to create computer monitoring; To analyze the pedagogical software tools implemented on CD-ROM; Develop Web sites for educational purposes; Use communication technologies for educational purposes; Skills: Possess the skills of conducting computer pedagogical and psychological diagnostics Experience in the creation of pedagogical software, test tasks, the use of Internet resources for educational purposes.

Formation of competencies must be carried out in stages: training of teachers to work with the technique of audiovisual and interactive teaching aids; Introduction of the acquired knowledge in the teaching of disciplines; use of the Internet in education; mastering the process of creating test tasks and conducting computer monitoring; creation and use of pedagogical software.

Especially important is the improvement of the quality of the preparation of masters, as a creative elite of an innovative society. To ensure that the system of preparing students in the Master’s program justifies the expectations assigned to it, it is necessary to understand and solve a number of pedagogical problems: the magnitude of the tasks facing master students in mastering a large number of types of professional activity; The composition of the students is heterogeneous in terms of preparation and age; The unavailability of many undergraduates for a variety of professional activities; Their low research potential. Information technologies in the preparation of masters allow to effectively structure, bring the educational process closer to the world standards.

They are based on certain patterns of dissemination and assimilation of information. Such synthesis allows to develop and apply open systems of intensive training both in the content aspect (the effect of the informatization of education on the content of training) and in the procedural aspect (the effect of the informatization of education on the educational process).

Conclusion. Thus, the work of the teacher turns into the management of the activity of the trainee and the process of interaction with it in the “person-person” system, solving the tasks of transition from ignorance to knowledge, from misunderstanding to understanding, from inability to skill, from helplessness to independence and the desire to share knowledge, Skills and experience, taking into account the personality of the student.

The learner, as the subject and object of interaction with the teacher, creates new knowledge, skills, practical skills and personality qualities in the process, not only in purely professional activities, but also in pedagogy. The teacher should warn students about the need for a balanced approach to obtaining information from external sources. Only a person with sufficient experience and knowledge can correctly assess the quality of information.

Created by Ozoda Hasilovna

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