John Rawls is one of the most important western political philosophers of the 20th century whose book “Theory of Justice” is one of the most cited contemporary books in this discipline. In this work, Rawls develops the enlightened idea of the social contract modifying it to the idea of the “original position”, in which any rational individual will choose certain principles of justice.
First of all, it should be noted that the idea of writing such a work is based on the author’s Continue reading
In the first half of the XIV century William of Ockham took part in debates of the Church and countries of Western Europe. In 1324 he was summoned to the court of papal curia in Avignon to answer the question about correspondence of his theological and philosophical works concerning the question of faith.
Here charges of heresy come up. Pope John XXII demands explanations, having a list of suspicious quotation by Ockham, which was made by Oxford University chancellor. After three years’ work of the commission appointed by the Pope, 7 points were announced heretical, 37 – false and 4 were called Continue reading
The view that Aristotle considered the separate, self-thinking, unmoved substance described in Metaphysics _ to be a god has come under fire in recent decades, notably from Richard Bodéüs.
On Bodéüs’ account, Aristotle’s gods are not substances of this kind, but are rather (a) composites of soul and body that are (b) beneficent towards mankind. Continue reading
Mychola Gavrylovych Chernyshevsky was a Russian journalist and writer. He was born 12 (24) July 1828 in Saratov. Grew up into the family of a priest. Father Gabriel Ivanovychsa Chernyshevsky (1793 -1861) was a priest. A writer studied at home his father was a teacher for him. His father was many-sided educated man and therefore could fully develop your child. In 1842 he entered the seminary in Saratov, where he devoted the most time to self-education, studying foreign languages, Russian grammar, geography, history, literature and theory of literature and various sciences. He did not finished Seminary. Continue reading
The philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer has been historically received as inappropriately pessimistic. It seemed particularly out of place in the philosophical Zeitgeist of the early 19th century that was absorbed with the dialectical optimism of Fichte, Schelling and Hegel.
Schopenhauer’s philosophy is, for this and other reasons, often brushed aside as out of place, exaggerated and juvenile. He is then little more than the quaint philosophical antipode of Hegel, an awkward ‘frenemy’ Continue reading
Alfred Mahan, the founder of the North American school of geopolitics, had introduced into the scientific circle such concepts as “domination at sea”, “sea power” and had developed the concept of sea power of the state for the first time. The formulated concept of A.Mahan influenced not only the development of the theory of naval art but also the development of foreign policy in many countries around the world.
In his work “The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660–1783 “ A.Mahan showed the influence of naval power on the historical order of events and the growth of the welfare of the nation. Continue reading
My paper takes a close look at the groundings of equality in John Locke’s political thought as well as in his epistemology.
Locke is commonly perceived as a great defender of equality as a principle – a principle which in his case has religious roots, as can be seen in his First Treatise of Government. In his book God, Locke and Equality, Jeremy Waldron appreciates that John Locke does not treat equality as something self-evident and provides it with a solid base. Continue reading
When we ask anyone, except the logicians, what logic is and what it serves for, the answer will be that the logic is a rational way of thinking. This correlation between rationality and logic is unbreakable in our head. For instance, when somebody claims to be a vegetarian, but continue to eat chicken saying that the birds are stupid, we may notice that his/her position lack logic. Continue reading
P=?NP is a famous problem common for mathematical logic and mathematical theory of computational complexity. Computational complexity theory divides formal problems in different classes according to the function that describes the output of the computational machine for the given formula as an input. There are several classes that are combined into a complex hierarchy which though has blank spaces. Continue reading
Philosophical historiography cannot be bound to text hermeneutics solely; it should strive for reconstruction of understanding, interpretation, appropriation, denial and criticism around the given philosopheme.
Thus, the branch of Rezeptiongeschichte is a promising direction of historical studies of philosophy. Let us assume that reception is interpretation taken with its consequences both in philosophical and non-philosophical aspects of philosophical thinking. Continue reading