Aristotle’s Comparative Logic: a Textual Note

aristotle_1This paper deals with Aristotle, Topics, 119 a20-22. This passage contains a logical f law in all the available translations in modern languages (Tricot, Zadro, Colli, Barnes, Pickard-Cambridge, Wager/Rapp, Rolfes).

This notwithstanding, I claim that the Greek makes sense, and that Aristotle’s comparative logic is consistent. I defend this claim by looking at Aristotle’s use of negation. Continue reading

Metaphysics and the Crisis of Science

martin-heidegger11Almost 80 years ago, Edmund Husserl complained about a deep crisis that modern science undergoes, in spite of all its recent achievements.

Almost at the same time, Martin Heidegger claimed that the project of modern science, unlike that of ancient philosophy, is to gain complete technical control over nature rather than theoretical knowledge about it, and that a deep cleft between science and original philosophy has thus opened up. Continue reading

The Politico-Philosophical Treatise and Historical Chronicles (Aristotle and Niccolo Machiavelli)

PhilosBesides to philosophical genres, philosophers also turned to historical genres. We would like to focus our attention on several genres in the works of Aristotle and Niccolo Machiavelli – the politico-philosophical treatise and historical chronicles that are closely intertwined in the work of philosophers.

Analyzing the works of Aristotle (“Constitution of the Athenians” and “Politics”) and N. Continue reading

Existence Choice in Jean-Paul Sartr Phylosophy

Jean-Paul SartrBy the analysis of the metaphisic reality of the Sartrs’s “Nausea”, I would like to emphasize the following: how the apprehention of objective environment able to turn a man into an individual who is guided by his/her existention?

The choice determines the level of internal freedom of human and finally finds the fact of spiritual existence. If the choice has been made, – all consequences fall fully on the person who made that choice. If the choice wasn’t made as a result of free will of individual based on the internal grounds, but was a “side-effect” of Continue reading

P. Ricoeur about The Resolution of Value Conflicts by National Cultures

Paul-RicoeurP. Ricoeur belongs to the classics of modern philosophy. His interests are universal. In a number of works the thinker touches upon the question of the conflict of cultures, the understanding of the Other, the definition of the self.

Ricoeur points out that humanity, taken as a single organism, is part of a single global civilization, which represents an enormous progress for all and the main objective here is to survive and adapt to the cultural heritage. Continue reading

Ethics and Politics in Ibn Bajjah Philosophy

ibnu bajjah1The political and ethical thought of the Eastern (Arabic-speaking) peripatetic philosophy has a rich tradition. One of the most prominent representatives of this intellectual school was the Andalusian medieval thinker, scholar and politician Ibn Bajjаh.

The socio-political component of the methodology of Ibn Bajjah was formed both under the influence of the theoretical heritage of ancient Greek philosophy and the Falsafa tradition as well as on the basis of his own experience formed by long years of service at the court of the Almoravids as a wazir. Continue reading

Soren Kierkegaard: Criticism of Philosophical Systems

soren-kierkegaardIn all his works Kierkergaard criticizes contemporaries, the era and the society in which he lived. Kierkegaard was dissatisfied with conservative traditionalism, revolutionism, and reformism because they turned everything into politics and politics has become a field for politicians and their deals.

He regarded the revolution of 1848 as a “catastrophe”, a “historical convulsion”, defining the then revolutionary upheaval not as a single act but as a condition that threatens to become permanent. Continue reading

Ethical Norms of Social Being in M. Heidegger’s Hermeneutic Philosophy

martinHaedegerAs is well known, Martin Heidegger’s philosophy has no holistic ethical theory, but his questioning about being closely interlinks with ethical problems. According to the German philosopher’s ideas, the existence of human being primarily has a social nature that ontologically implies the presence of moral norms and rules of conduct for the possibility of realizing a collective being in a common society.

Heidegger have criticized ethical teachings that preceded him and constructed his own ideas about the social world and its ethical norms. The main emphasis he placed on the being-in-the-world that shared with other people. Continue reading

Ethics in Philosophy of Politics: Why Rawls’ Theory of Justice Is Not Universal?

John-Rawls-1John Rawls is one of the most important western political philosophers of the 20th century whose book “Theory of Justice” is one of the most cited contemporary books in this discipline. In this work, Rawls develops the enlightened idea of the social contract modifying it to the idea of the “original position”, in which any rational individual will choose certain principles of justice.

First of all, it should be noted that the idea of writing such a work is based on the author’s Continue reading

Doctrine “Pleniîudo Potesîatis” in William of Ockham

William_of_OckhamIn the first half of the XIV century William of Ockham took part in debates of the Church and countries of Western Europe. In 1324 he was summoned to the court of papal curia in Avignon to answer the question about correspondence of his theological and philosophical works concerning the question of faith.

Here charges of heresy come up. Pope John XXII demands explanations, having a list of suspicious quotation by Ockham, which was made by Oxford University chancellor. After three years’ work of the commission appointed by the Pope, 7 points were announced heretical, 37 – false and 4 were called Continue reading