Freedom acquisition through subjection of existing nessesity. The principle of apathy.
Paroxysm is strong attack, assalt (illness, feelings). The passion is a strong feeling expression. It starts and run rapidly. It is an explosive process. It might be envy, anger, loathing or strong apathy attack. All of these reduce focusing ability in reality and a luck of emotions.
Stoicism originated in ancient Greece in the 3rd century. B.C. The founder of the philosophical school was Zeno of Citium. Proponents of this theory gathered in the gallery with columns in Athens, which was called Stoya (Greek. Stoya-portico). Stoicism is divided into three periods: Ancient Stoya (3-2 century BC. E.) The average Stoya (2-1 century BC.) Late Stoya (1-2 century AD.)
This paper critically examines and defends an epistemological theory sketched by the late American philosopher James F. Ross, known as “Cognitive Voluntarism”. Continue reading
This presentation addresses the criticism of Kant’s ethics as being removed from everyday moral thinking through a discussion of Kant’s analysis of common moral rational cognition in Groundwork I.
It invokes Bernard Williams’ distinction between abstract, “thin” ethical concepts, such as “right” and “good,” which are the subject matter of much contemporary ethical theorizing, and concrete, “thick” ethical concepts such as “coward” and “lie,” which, on Williams’ view, are the “given” of ethical thought, and thus should form the starting point of ethical reflection.
In the political theories of the “classical” social contract philosophers, the social contract marks a pivotal moment of transformation for mankind.
Rather than simply working out a justification for government, social contract theory provides an explanation for the coming into being of mankind. In other words, while the establishing within reason of a government appears as the purported objective content of the classic texts of the period, namely between Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau, that is not the end of the story. Continue reading
One of the more striking aspects of the work of the little-known early modern philosopher Arnold Geulincx (1624-1669) is his incorporation of a conception of ‘beatitude’ into an otherwise strongly rationalistic variant of Cartesianism.
The beatitude Geulincx describes takes the form of a very particular kind of intellectual joy and eternal happiness, beyond (though not cancelling out) our earthly passions and the pleasures of this life.
Accordingly, this paper will explore the metaphysical and physical underpinnings of Geulincx’s ethics from the Continue reading
In recent years, social changes have become the basis for the emergence of the concept of “digital revolution”. This is a fairly broad concept that covers possible social, economic and political changes based on advances in information and computer technologies.
It should be noted that both in the mass consciousness and among researchers there is no identical, even terminological, understanding of what exactly should be attributed to the most important Continue reading
In the Metaphysics of Manners, Kant claimed that freedom is “the only original right inherent in every human being because of his belonging to the human race.” Therefore, a good life in society is therefore impossible without freedom.
However, here, in the Metaphysics of Manners, Kant ascribes to freedom and equality a certain identity. He defines freedom as “independence from the coercive arbitrariness of the other”. Continue reading
The first century BC was marked for the Roman Republic by the intensification of inside crisis processes that led to its collapse. In many ways, these processes were caused by perversion of the system of state power, where the dominant place was occupied by the tribal aristocracy.
Access to the Senate and magistrates was actually closed to truly active, gifted citizens ready to serve the Republic. On the contrary: representatives of the nobility, having guarantees of access to power, regardless of personal qualities and merits, used their position in their personal interests. Continue reading
It is common place to consider Aristotle’s Metaphysics and Ethics completely independently of one another. At the same time there are a number of researchers who argue against this traditional point of view and try to find connection between Ethics and Metaphysics of Aristotle.
In my report I will describe the approach of the authors who suppose that Aristotle’s Ethics has a metaphysical foundation.
And I will show some problem consequences from this point of view. Aristotle’s “Nicomachean Ethics” starts from two fundamental assumes: Continue reading