Groundwork I’s Analysis of Common Moral Rational Cognition

Kant_IThis presentation addresses the criticism of Kant’s ethics as being removed from everyday moral thinking through a discussion of Kant’s analysis of common moral rational cognition in Groundwork I.

It invokes Bernard Williams’ distinction between abstract, “thin” ethical concepts, such as “right” and “good,” which are the subject matter of much contemporary ethical theorizing, and concrete, “thick” ethical concepts such as “coward” and “lie,” which, on Williams’ view, are the “given” of ethical thought, and thus should form the starting point of ethical reflection.

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The Implicit Ontology of Thomas Hobbes

Thomas_Hobbes2In the political theories of the “classical” social contract philosophers, the social contract marks a pivotal moment of transformation for mankind.

Rather than simply working out a justification for government, social contract theory provides an explanation for the coming into being of mankind. In other words, while the establishing within reason of a government appears as the purported objective content of the classic texts of the period, namely between Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau, that is not the end of the story. Continue reading

Eternal Beatitude and the Devil in Arnold Geulincx’s Ethics

Arnold_GeulincxOne of the more striking aspects of the work of the little-known early modern philosopher Arnold Geulincx (1624-1669) is his incorporation of a conception of ‘beatitude’ into an otherwise strongly rationalistic variant of Cartesianism.

The beatitude Geulincx describes takes the form of a very particular kind of intellectual joy and eternal happiness, beyond (though not cancelling out) our earthly passions and the pleasures of this life.

Accordingly, this paper will explore the metaphysical and physical underpinnings of Geulincx’s ethics from the Continue reading

«Digital Revolution»: Ethical Challenges and Possible Risks

Digital-RevolutionIn recent years, social changes have become the basis for the emergence of the concept of “digital revolution”. This is a fairly broad concept that covers possible social, economic and political changes based on advances in information and computer technologies.

It should be noted that both in the mass consciousness and among researchers there is no identical, even terminological, understanding of what exactly should be attributed to the most important Continue reading

Ethics of Freedom and Equality

happyIn the Metaphysics of Manners, Kant claimed that freedom is “the only original right inherent in every human being because of his belonging to the human race.” Therefore, a good life in society is therefore impossible without freedom.

However, here, in the Metaphysics of Manners, Kant ascribes to freedom and equality a certain identity. He defines freedom as “independence from the coercive arbitrariness of the other”. Continue reading

Moral and Political Ideal of Cicero

CiceronThe first century BC was marked for the Roman Republic by the intensification of inside crisis processes that led to its collapse. In many ways, these processes were caused by perversion of the system of state power, where the dominant place was occupied by the tribal aristocracy.

Access to the Senate and magistrates was actually closed to truly active, gifted citizens ready to serve the Republic. On the contrary: representatives of the nobility, having guarantees of access to power, regardless of personal qualities and merits, used their position in their personal interests. Continue reading

Metaphysical Foundations of Aristotle’s Ethics

AristIt is common place to consider Aristotle’s Metaphysics and Ethics completely independently of one another. At the same time there are a number of researchers who argue against this traditional point of view and try to find connection between Ethics and Metaphysics of Aristotle.

In my report I will describe the approach of the authors who suppose that Aristotle’s Ethics has a metaphysical foundation.

And I will show some problem consequences from this point of view. Aristotle’sNicomachean Ethics” starts from two fundamental assumes: Continue reading

The Moral Justification of the Law Reforming

Attorney's moral dutyLaw and morality are the ways of regulating of the social relations. The right, as well as a morality is a dynamic system that has a different expression in the different historical epochs.

Different approaches to the definition and understanding of law in the scientific literature are affecting to the interpretation of the legal and illegal facts. Continue reading

The Moral of Revolutionaries

RevolutionariesAs a rule, Political Science considers revolutions in isolation from the moral qualities of people that make it, abstracts from them.

Moreover, even considering the revolution in moral categories the moral of revolutionaries as such remains outside its field of view (this cannot be said about fiction literature: let’s remember, for example, Dostoevsky’s “Demons”!). Continue reading