Introduction. Considering the processes of European integration in Ukraine and modernisation of modern higher education in our country, the level of foreign students preparation in Ukraine, too, has to meet this imperative of our time.
The main conflict of the natural discipline teaching process for foreign students lies in the immediate need for rapid acquisition of knowledge and restricted capabilities of foreign students in grasping this knowledge due to a very limited amount of teaching time and evident delays in mastering educational programs during usual periods of study stemming from the fact of studying in a foreign language. These issues demand a complete review of how the teaching process should be organized. In order to minimize this conflict, it is advisable to use frame pedagogical technology in the process of teaching natural disciplines (chemistry, physics and biology).
Frame pedagogical technology is technology of study of educational material, which is structured in a certain way in the specially organized periodic time sequence (scenario). Increase of learned scopes of knowledge without the increase of training time is a main attribute of the technology [1, p.140].
Pedagogical researches on issue of methodology of teaching of natural disciplines to the foreign students in Ukraine are concentrated in area of general organization of educational process, interdisciplinary co-ordination, methodical providing, lexical minimum, using of information technologies of studies and others like that. However, the problem of intensification an assimilation knowledge of natural disciplines by foreign students in the way of using the frame technology is researched not enough and needs more attention from the side of scientists.
A goal of the article is in determination of ways of intensification the educational process, of the increase the reliability of mastering educational material in natural disciplines by foreign students as a result of employment the frame educational technology and also determination of meaning of this process for realization of effective professional preparation of foreign students in Ukraine.
Research results. A frame is a framework, skeleton, structure of supply of material, that can be overlayed on next themes. A frame is one of methods of presentation the stereotype situation, that represents the most characteristic, basic moments of row of near situations that belong to one class . Any frame consists of the slots (terminals) filled by concrete maintenance. There are criteria that distinguish a frame scheme from other types of supports:
– it is a presence of constant carcass, often as the frame, divided into sectors and themes, located in the center of the framework;
– it is the system of slots – empty sectors that is filled by concrete maintenance of theme (by pictures, formulas, mini-texts, key word-combinations).
Wherein the quantity of slots and their location is also constant, their filling changes only;
– a chart-frame contains a scenario, generalized plan of answer;
— it is reusing of frame charts-supports;
– it is possibility of independent elaboration and employment of frame charts-supports for the study of new stereotype situations.
Frame approach it is better to use for the study of the material, broken on blocks in each of that there are similar in structure and form themes. The basic sign of intensity of frame technology is an increase of scope of educational material without the increase of educational time. Exactly this does using frames especially valuable in the process of teaching of natural disciplines to foreign students. For example, at the study of classes of organic compounds in chemistry, systems of organs in an anatomy and others like that.
Knowledge of frame structure allows to systematize the large volume of information, at the same time saving its maximally comfortable for perception. It is possible to “compress”, structure and systematize information in certain matrices by dint of frame model.
It should be noted that frames are not universal, they can be extended and complemented, or vice versa brief. Frames must be built in accordance with the concrete necessities of student, his possibilities, previous knowledge, level of language preparation, because we speak about foreign students. So, frames are not something permanent and unchanging, they are created in accordance with educational possibilities and educational necessities of students.
Knowing basic principles and methodology of independent creation of frames and their use in the process of study of educational material, students will be able to apply these knowledge in further studies. Everybody has different capabilities, habits, personal luggage of knowledge, associations that can help in the process of memorizing of that or other information. Therefore, the best result can be attained developing such frame blocks independently.
In addition, a student forced foremost to systematize all necessary information in the process of forming a frame, all this also promotes to increase the quality and reliability of mastering of educational material. For this reason, a mastering by foreign students the technology of creation of frames and their further application in the process of study of natural disciplines assists to realization of quality professional preparation of foreign students in Ukraine.
For example, in the process of study of classes of inorganic compounds frames help quickly to master principles of co-operation compounds of different classes between themselves. In organic chemistry course in chapters dedicated to every class separately, it is possible to distinguish general contents (general formula, the most important nambers of this class, homological row, type of hybridization, composition, structure, nomenclature, isomerism, physical properties and features of chemical properties, condition of flowing of chemistry reactions, methods of preparation and use).
Mastering the general chart of one of classes of organic compounds become easily to systematize material of next classes. During the study of the first theme students meet with the using of frames on lessons (reproductive activity), their productive activity is near to the zero on this stage. At the study of next themes, the process of perception takes place faster. When the frame scenario of educational material enters to student’s consciousness completely, it will be used automatically, productive activity will displace reproductive.
At the study of physical regularities, it is possible to use frames allowing to memorize formulas that are used for the solution of tasks. Using frames, a new information is built in the already existent cognitive schemes, processes them and forms new cognitive schemes and intellectual operations. Wherein the connections are formed between already known to student the concepts and methods of actions and new knowledge.
For the studied material was “built” in the student’s cognitive schemes, it must be consolidated in memory by the already existed connections. Frame schemes are sent to the exposure of such connections and presentation of them by graphic or symbol structures. Mental representations appear and kept in consciousness as operative units of knowledge (characters, signs, formulas, brief speech phrases and others like that). They are formed mainly with participation of visual or language information. Such convolute texts, logical schemes, descriptions of the concepts, perception of that allows quickly and qualitatively to master the new systems of concepts, methods of actions and intellectual operations can be created as a result of frame structure and presentation of educational material [3, p.80-89].
In biology course, the most difficult for foreign students is work with texts maintenance of that represents theoretical knowledge. The same educational information that is presented in text and graphic forms is mastered faster if studied during its graphic presentation. The flaw of text representation of knowledge is in that it does not allow fully to involve the psychical and emotional processes related to the capacity to rapid treatment of large volumes of new information. In addition, biology, in comparing to chemistry or physics operates the least number of signs or formulas. For this reason frame supports (as tables, charts and others like that) facilitate the process of perception of information considerably.
During work with frames at the difficult analytic and synthetic activity of both teacher and student rolling up of verbal information comes true to the compressed verbal texts, translation of verbal information to descriptive, synthesis of the integral system of elements of knowledge with specific copulas and relations.
In the process of study of histology using of frame technology substantially saves time and simultaneously promotes reliability of mastering of educational material that is given, for example, as a table. A table can be complemented by pictures or rectifications, can purchase other, non-table kind, however essence without changes: the enormous volume of educational material is given maximally briefly, compact, systematized.
Filling all cells (after example of one of tissues), a student systematizes knowledge about all types of tissues, concentrates attention on the features of structure of every type, recognizes connection between a structure and function, and gets the plan of answer, after that not a single important moment will be forgotten. Thus, laying hands on a minimum vocabulary, foreign students are able to master the enormous volume of educational material, recreate it in a verbal answer and, that is the most important, this information is memorized reliably, because it is fixed in image.
A frame can be folded as pictures, schemes, tables, algorithms et cetera, that is why frame technology provides a clearness, capacity, imagines, compactness. Frame technology provides effective actualization of scientific information, its perception and recreation in the new message in memory of foreign students. Realization of principle of frame design pulls out high requirements to the selection and organization of educational material. The change of size (volume) of a frame is assumed that promotes efficiency of solution of such problems, as perception of sense and meaningfulness of texts and symbols [4, p.137-144].
It should be noted that holding in memory a visual picture the frame, a foreign student will be able to recreate the large volume of information in a verbal answer that is characterized by logic and completeness, that is a difficult task, taking into account their small vocabulary.
By absolute advantage of application of frame technology in the process of study of natural disciplines by foreign students is the rapid remembering of enormous volume of material through set time. In fact, any foreign language, including the language of educational discipline needs a reiteration and regular practice.
Intensification of studies due to application of frame technology is explained by properties of brain to perceive image information with less tension: educational material becomes more available and memorized well.
Conclusions. Small vocabulary of foreign students, especially on the initial stage of studies in Ukraine strongly enough limits their potential possibilities in the receipt of valuable education and deep mastering of all volume of knowledge and skills envisaged by the program. Such situation envisages application of pedagogical technologies that allow visually and figuratively to perceive and give educational material. Frame technology is one of such technologies in the studies of students-foreigners. Pedagogical frame technology is an ergonomics factor, that allows to solve problem intensification of educational process of foreign students.
In spite of differences in teaching of different natural disciplines the application of frame technology has general goals, alike mechanisms of realization of frame approach, similar factors that stipulate the necessity of frames using and also similar results of studies with using frames – it is essential increase of efficiency and quality of studies.
Applications of frames-scenarios, the structure of that in the convolute, symbolic, compressed kind represents the generalized concept of knowledge, allows to foreign students to create cognitive schemes more effectively that lie in the basis of development of intellectual abilities a person and provides effective professional preparation of foreign students in Ukraine.
Created by PhD Shmonina T.