Now all countries of the world to some extent carry out information process. The first country which has begun information is the USA. Other industrially developed countries of the world, having understood perceptivity and inevitability of this direction, have quickly enough oriented and introduction of computers and means of telecommunications began to step up. Japan showed and shows a great interest to society information about what speaks the Japanese project of information.
The purpose of the Japanese project – to connect those services which were offered separately and for this purpose all types of information from telephone messages earlier and TV programs to actually computer production should be transferred on one general cable. In the long term each subscriber of a cable network can receive some services simultaneously. The great attention in the project also is given to creation of terminals for non-skilled with the intellectual interface where information input is carried out by a voice. It is supposed that full realization of the project of information will occupy 20 years and dale will demand about 100 billion. Capital investments. Many countries have national programs of information taking into account local features and conditions.
At creation and introduction of such programs of the country lean against experience of the advanced countries, consider their successes and failures and reflect in the programs existing and perspective tendencies of information. Result of process of information is creation of an information society where the cores are not material objects, and ideas, intelligence, knowledge.
In an information society the Centre of gravity is necessary on a social production where requirements to level of preparation of all its participants essentially raise. The quantum leap in development of information technology in the end of XX century has generated a new global social revolution that should be reflected in development of ideas of a global information society.
The reality of modern forms of existence of information societies is that that while in the majority economically developed countries of the world, public relations already have strongly pronounced enough information character, the system of public authorities still works in the conditions of a society industrial. In an information society traditional structures of the government existing in the majority of the developed countries of the world with inherent industrial society to system of values, are compelled to change own sights at use of imperious powers as with the advent of essentially new methods and possibilities of rendering of influence on citizens, former methods of influence lose the efficiency.
Thus, the new system of public relations of an information society starts to force out former system, occurs integration of traditional state governing bodies into the developed systems of public relations into information sphere. One of such forms of integration of executive power in an information society is the concept of “the electronic government” and creation of such electronic government should provide not only more effective and less cost’s administration, but also cardinal change of mutual relations between a society and the government.
State governing bodies in the course of construction of an information society and development of an information infrastructure form such subject of activity in society information field, as “the electronic government”.
In the Okinawa charter of a global information society (Okinawa Charteron Global Information Society, it is accepted at the summit of Kiushu- Okinawa in 2000), it is told: “information-telecommunication technologies are one of the most important factors influencing formation of a society of the twenty first century. Their revolutionary influence concerns a way of life of people, their formation and work, and also interaction of the government and a civil society.
The system of the electronic government is a representation in the Internet of the information on work of the state structures or payment of taxes where there are such interactions:
– Between the state and citizens (G2C, Government – to Citizen);
– Between the state and business (G2B, Government – to Business);
– Between various branches of the Government (G2G, Government – to Government);
– Between the state and civil servants (G2E, Government –to Employees).
The site of official body is a source of the information first-hand. Accurate giving and information structuration, tracing by what excite a society, representation of the official point of view, instead of its hushing up has great value.
The Purpose: the electronic government is not addition or analogue of the traditional government, and only defines a new way of interaction on the basis of active use of information-communication technologies (ICT) with a view of increase of efficiency of granting of the state services.
Now there is no uniform concept of the electronic government. There is only a set of the general requirements, which performance citizens and business has the right to expect from the government of an information society.
The analysis of elements of the Korean concept of an information society is development of electronic economy has shown that the volume of electronic trade in South Korean networks in 2001 has exceeded $80 billion. In February, 2002 in a national network 2 276 trading sites were. In the summer of Koreans of 2001, 9 % carried out transactions on the stock exchange through a global network, and in the spring of 2002, 25 % of the population used e-banking that has deduced South Korea on the third place in the world on use e-banking after Sweden (29 %) and Norway (28 %).
By the Government of Singapore have been developed strategic some programs:
– The program of a computerization of the state civil service (1981), the National plan on information technology (1986);
– Plan IT 2000 (Reasonable Island – Intelligent Island, 1991).
In these programs information technology is defined as a key direction of economic development of Singapore. Features of a geographical position of a city-island do Singapore by the important world Centre of trade and the finance. The government has decided to use such advantage to transformation of the country in the information-communication Centre conducting in Asian-Pacific region delivering information services on the global market.
Problems of strategic plans include also acceleration of social and economic development of the country, improvement of quality of life, introduction IT into various spheres, including formation, culture, and a life.
Today all developed countries of the world pass to the information society which formation admits an inevitable stage of development of mankind. Already more than twenty years formation of an information society is a subject of program workings out at national, international and regional levels.
The given workings out are aimed at revealing and realization of effective ways of advancement of the countries to an information society, and also on high-grade use of possibilities and the advantages arising at these countries in process of advancement on the chosen way.
Ass you know process of formation of information society proceeds in different countries with various intensity and features.
In the general view it is possible to allocate two models of such formation: “western” and “east”.
In “the western” model the dominant role is taken away liberalizations of the market of information superhighways and to their universal service.
In “east” it is given more attention to state and market cooperation, the aspiration to establish connection between traditional cultural values and, inevitable with formation of a global information society, social changes is observed.
At the same time within the limits of each of these models there are distinctions which are in many respects defined by level of economic and sociopolitical development of this or that society. Today it becomes clear that for the present not all the countries are ready to cross a new step of evolution of a human society or even to approach to it, however, if to estimate world development as a whole, process of formation of a global information society is represented irreversible.
Realization of an information society is impossible without introduction of the electronic government.
The electronic government is a concept of realization of the government, inherent in an information society. Components of the qualitative government are: the accountability (responsibility), a transparency (openness) of authorities, and efficiency of decision-making.
Now it is possible to allocate 4 basic models of “the electronic government», received a practical embodiment in the USA, Europe, Asian-Pacific region and Russia.
To name conditional them it is possible so:
– The continental model;
– Anglo-American model;
– The Asian model;
– The Russian model.
Communication of the electronic government with administrative reforms is expressed that it:
– Serves as the reform tool;
– Updates interest to administrative reform;
– Highlights internal inconsistency in public management;
– Forces the governments to follow obligations of the best management;
– Raises legitimation of governmental activity;
-Speaks about readiness of the government to change according to requirements of today.
The law Republic of Uzbekistan «About the electronic government from December, 9th, 2015, № -395 where the order of rendering of electronic state services through the Uniform portal of interactive state services and official web sites of state structures is provided.
Development of the electronic government is promoted by the created by Center of development of system «Electronic government» at the Ministry of Development of Information technology of Republic of Uzbekistan where created the basis of the governmental which primary goals are:
– Development of strategic directions of the further development and system perfection «the Electronic government», including on the basis of the analysis and research of world tendencies and experience of foreign countries;
– Maintenance of the uniform technological approach in system formation «the Electronic government», designing providing the co-ordinated mechanism, working out and integration of information systems, information resources and the databases used in state structures, the organization of is standard-methodical maintenance of realization of projects of system «Electronic government»;
– The organization of carrying out of system reorganization of functional and operational processes of activity of state structures, preparation of offers on optimization, perfection and introduction of innovative mechanisms of management by the business processes, the state services connected with rendering;
– Carrying out of the target analysis and preparation of offers on perfection of operating is standard-legal base for effective introduction of system «Electronic government»;
– Carrying out of system monitoring, an estimation of a condition of introduction and development of information-communication technologies, including studying of efficiency of introduction of information systems and resources, conducting system of a rating estimation of efficiency of introduction of information-communication technologies in activity of state structures within the limits of system «Electronic government»;
– Working out of a technique of definition of key indicators of efficiency of granting and use of interactive state services, definition of target indicators and indicators of realization of projects within the limits of system «Electronic government».
Ultimate goal of introduction of the electronic government in Uzbekistan is creation of the perfect electronic device of the state administration capable considerably to improve: possibilities of granting of interactive services; the accountability and a transparency of activity of authorities; availability and individual services; informing and productive participation of citizens in political process; free information interchange; optimization of granting of state services to the population and business; support and expansion of possibilities of self-service of citizens; increase of degree of participation of all voters in management and country government processes, etc.
The first law on creation and development of the electronic government has been created in 1996 in the USA – «About access to the electronic information» in which it is registered that all departments are obliged to give electronic access to documents of the given department. In the USA in 2002 «the law also has been passed about the electronic government» where definition «E-Government», treated as «use by the Government of the Internet appendices based on WEB and other information technology in a combination to processes which realize these technologies» has been made.
The electronic government is understood in the USA as the concept directed on increase of efficiency of activity of the state as a whole by means of information of interstate processes. The concept execution in the USA you can see in the site http://www.usa.gov where the state services and are given has been created. At European Union level the uniform legal base for application in territory of all countries entering into it has been created. This uniform base is expressed in the form of Instructions of the European commission.
Thus, in all European countries the uniform laws, concerning electronic digital signatures operate; trade in the Internet – space and with application of IT Technologies; protection of the data and safety of the documentation; systems of the state and municipal orders. In Germany bases for creation of the electronic government have been put – the agreement «Progress and updating – a way of Germany to the XXI-st century» in which the state underlined importance of citizens is signed, reoriented on their needs, and also optimized the government device. Intentions to spend the electronically version for all institutes of executive power have been expressed and to make services rendered by them accessible through a global computer network.
In Germany (2005) «the law has been passed about access to the information» where rules of interaction with public authorities have been established. The site http://www.bund.de on which people could get access to services has been created. In Great Britain E-Government has begun the way in 1998, from the moment of signing «the Law on protection of the data». In 2000 it was accepted two laws: « About access to the information “and” On a beam coupling ».
Definitions of the electronic government at Great Britain and the USA are identical. In 2004 the site on rendering of the state services http://www.gov.uk, which feature in access to it from digital television has been created.
The state Singapore which takes in the lead lines of ratings throughout ten years, information process has passed five basic phases which are executed according to the national plan with strategic targets in this state:
1980-85 – the National plan of a computerization;
1986-91 – the National plan on IT;
1992-2000 -«IT 2000: Intellectual island »; Infocom-21: Capital Infocom»; 2003 – on the present – the Incorporated network of Singapore.
In 2007 The government of Russia had been confirmed the concept “Electronic government” and according to this concept “Electronic government” renders services for citizens and the organizations the primary goals of an infrastructure of the electronic government include construction of information-analytical systems for increase of efficiency of the government, monitoring of social and economic development, management of a course of performance of priority national problems, that is vital issues of perfection and administrative reform of the government in Russia are mentioned. The electronic government it is introduced and in Byelorussia where allocate three stages.
Stage 1 – publicity: the basic element of the given stage efficiency of updating of the information and presence of the governmental web portal which integrates all state information resources and gives access to them “through one window”.
Stage 2 – online transactions: at the second stage the state services (registration of real estate and the ground areas, filling of tax declarations, giving of statements on the permission) are given in an online mode.
Stage 3 – participation: at this stage participation of a society in the government, by maintenance of interactive interaction of citizens and firms with politicians and officials throughout all cycle of development of a state policy at all levels of the power is provided.
In our country continues the development the electronic government therefore expediently to consider experience of the most developed countries which number the USA concern, Japan, England, Germany, and France where this process has already had considerable development.
Created by: Gulamov Saidakhror Saidakhmedovich, Gulamov Saidasror Saidakhmedovich , Shermukhamedov Bobur Abbasovich