Intellectual capital as a factor in the development of national innovative system of Kazakhstan

kazakhsIntroduction. The innovative and technological potential of the country is the basis for longterm growth and social progress, at the same time, a constant modification of institutional, information and innovation systems providing stimulus for the intellectual potential development is required in order to ensure a sustainable innovation process. The main objective of the modern socio-economic development of Kazakhstan is to bring it in to an innovative trajectory, the maximum use of fundamentally new growth factors to achieve the country’s competitiveness [1].

Only a few countries have been able to make a significant leap in their development over the past 50-60 years, such as South Korea, Singapore, the Czech Republic and Slovenia. Their success is measured by the growth of GDP per capita [2].

However, recently, other indicators have become increasingly important, providing a comprehensive approach to the analysis of the country’s development [3]. Based on the analysis of the experience of developed countries, criteria were developed for Kazakhstan, which will ensure the country’s innitiation with the list of developed countries, such as innovation, modernization of economy, education, human capital, state structures efficiency, sustainable development (green economy).

In knowledge economy, the fact that human capital is the most important factor of economic growth and social development is universally recognized, since it determines the pace and level of development of the national economy. Today intellectual potential is the main affluence and the most valuable resource of any society, where human development achievements are the main criterion of the social and economic progress of society [4].

In modern conditions of a postindustrial society human potential is the main competitive advantage of the country. It makes it possible to implement innovations, to adapt the economy to globalization processes and achieve high competitiveness. The intellectual potential accumulation becomes the basis of sustainable economic development and the welth of nations [5].

The country’s intellectual potential has a significant investment potential. The sharp increase of the manpower in the reproduction processes brings to the fore the problems of intellectual potential organisation. The lack of clear strategic priorities in the science and technology progress, the extremely limited capacity of the economy generate negative trends in the transformation of all components of the country’s intellectual potential: material, personnel, efficiency, organizational, legal and information [6].

The problems of capitalization of intellectual assets of the society, arising in the knowledge economy, create conditions that have not yet been overcome by highly developed countries or countries with transitional economies. These include problems such as the structure of a comprehensive assessment of intellectual potential, especially formation and reproduction, investing technologies in innovative processes, assessing the its effectiveness, and management of transformation processes [7].

Today, at the level of intellectual resources management, there is a lack of understanding of the value and essence of intellectual potential, no single, clearly formulated and justified innovation concept, nor the formation, reproduction and measurement methodology. Only some separated elements work: knowledge, information, objects of intellectual property, professional level, etc.

At the same time, in companies of the development countries attention is increasingly shifted to the exclusive value of the individual’s contribution to the company’s activities and the optimal use of its intellectual potential, which is the basis for the reproduction of capital. Currently, companies place high hopes on individual components of intellectual capital, hoping to achieve a higher level of competitiveness using it [8].

It is not happen by chance: intellectual capital is a complex system of interacting elements, without each of them the system is not functional. This shows a high demand to formulate a methodology of the reproduction, measurement and management of the structure and magnitude of intellectual potential, vital in increasing competition and innovative economy [9].

Results. Therefore, the question of qualitative and long-term reproduction of intellectual potential is very relevant. It is the progressive development of intellectual potential in close relationship with the process of innovative modernization that can lead Kazakhstan’s economy to a fundamentally new level of development.

The setting of new goals for the modern social and economic policy of the state determines the urgency and necessity of researching the problems of the formation of the country’s intellectual potential, the development of human capital and the growth of its intellectual resources on the basis of the implementation of the interconnected processes of Kazakhstan’s innovative development. Innovation has become a complex process, requiring the cooperation of a number of participants.

This complexity is connected with the concept of the national innovation system (NIS), proposed by Freeman [10] and widely used now. By Freeman’s definition, NIS is “a network of private and public institutions and organizations whose activities and interactions lead to the emergence, import, modification and diffusion of new technologies” [11].

A broad basis for understanding innovation involves three main aspects: agents of the national innovation system, including educational institutions (research institutes, universities, technology-supporting firms), state agencies and companies, as well as consumers, which are increasingly regarded as a source of innovation; inflows of knowledge and ideas, as well as the ability to learn, which is also part of the national innovation system; communication and interaction between different elements of the national innovation system.

Such aspect of the national innovation system will be used to analyze the innovative potential of the Republic of Kazakhstan, assessetment of the existing economic policy and suggestion of possible options for policy development. The principles outlined in the NIS concept are important for policy analysis. Most importantly, the links between the different components of the system are crucial to innovation and understanding these interdependencies and interrelationships should determine the policy of government intervention. Innovation is the result of simultaneous interaction of agents of a complex system that changes the established notion of a linear model of innovation (from research to commercial and product technologies). The functions of innovation, as a rule, are distributed among different organizations. Innovative activity can take place in various forms.

However, the central actors in the system are commercial enterprises that need internal reserves (intellectual resources) for successful implementation of innovations. The company’s innovative activity goes beyond R&D and includes many aspects, such as administration, project management and engineering.

Summary. Considering the innovation system at the macro and micro levels in terms of managerial perspectives, it is should be taken into account that it is managed by demand and supply for innovation, and exists in an international context. Thus, an effective national policy of the state is the result of the necessary balance between different strategies, principles, instruments and mechanisms.

The concept of the national innovation system continues to serve as the basis for the country’s innovation policy. The State Program of Industrial and Innovative Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2015-2019 confirmed the need to develop a national innovation system and reaffirmed the importance of interrelated, integrated and systematic actions to optimize the generation, commercialization and dissemination of knowledge.

The concept of NIS is closely connected with the notion of the national intellectual potential of the country, which also implies the interrelation between various aspects of innovation activity of the main subjects of NIS – education, science and production. The national innovation system depends not only on the ability to generate new knowledge, but also on the ability to disseminate and use technology, as well as the demand for their use.


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