Before analyzing the works of Sigmund Freud, we must define what moral and ethical standards. Ethics is the science of morality. Morality … what is it? So morality – a certain attitude, norms of behavior in society that people should follow best and friendly coexistence with other people and the outside world. Moral norms, in turn, it is rules, rules, then people behave well towards others. Some overlap with the norms of morality Commandments possible in every nation there are others like. Under the taboo regulations also include certain beliefs of people. If you do not, then you can not do. This is normal.
Sigmund Freud was a great man, famous for the fact that he studied the human psyche. The most significant contribution of Sigmund Freud is the discovery of the human psyche in a special part – unconscious. The unconscious does not coincide with the subconscious and consciousness. This is a separate element of the psyche, which is parallel to the subconscious and affect behavior in her personal life, life in society and so on.
Freud divided the human psyche into three parts: This superego and J. It According to scientists – a component of the subconscious that people can not control natural instincts trains. I, in turn, is part of consciousness. I have emotional control, balanced. As superego, it is part of the unconscious. This is above human existence, man masters in education, growth and development of all moral norms, social norms, taboos and praise. This superego as the most important part of the human psyche, according to Sigmund Freud, and oversees the man, his attitude to life, to others and to themselves.
Here the fun begins on moral standards (norms) and analysis.
According to scientists, the deepest layer of the human subconscious guided by the primary instincts such as sexual desire to get the most out of life. But such a desire is not always honest and fair towards other people do not always meet the moral standards of society as a whole. Later Freud decided yet, human activity is due not only to biological factors but also social. Therefore, people are mainly governed by social norms and moral principles, not to offend and not to harm others.
However, there is one “but.” If a person is still unfair, gets her behavior as immoral, then, according to Sigmund Freud, the human psyche is a mini-war. Many times we have heard people fighting with him. That this position. Thus, in order to meet their needs, one is confronted with the surrounding reality is reflected in the psyche, and I dominated that tries and wants to tame him unconscious impulse and send these trains social approval of their activities. So I urge support superego.
I would say that to some extent, the superego is the so-called rights of conscience that helps decide what to do in a given situation, moral norms or against them. This is according to Sigmund Freud, man is free and realizes that may have some passions and instincts, impulses, and full control of their lives.
In my opinion, Sigmund Freud believed that in this way, a man guided by moral norms prevent immoral behavior, fighting himself, his thoughts and feelings, not to hurt other people. And this happens every day, even every minute, because nowadays a lot of stress, people are angry and discontent with their lives, but still need to be polite, well-mannered and all smiles.
Regarding neofreydizm, other than the fundamental ideas of psychoanalysis, because they wanted this philosophy to explain the way people live as social beings, rather than interpret and explore the nature of their individual actions. This issue involves many researchers and scientists.
For example, Alfred Adler, Austrian thinker, thought to explain the motive of human behavior, one must know their ultimate goal and the final decision, so to speak, a life plan unconscious, by which the individual is trying to overcome all the difficulties of life and believe in yourself at all – circumstances.
The scientist believed that man, in the absence of certain physical qualities and physical imperfection, feels inferior and generally low value in our society. And, thus, trying to overcome the lack of physical and sensual, creative person opens his reserve. This is called over compensation. This compensation for physiological level exactly when the body and helps maintain itself, but the mental level.
Another follower, Karen Horney, an American scientist, believed that the primary motivation that encourages people to action is the desire of security that is born in a state of fear. In her view, anxiety and concern is the main core of any human behavior that is common with animals, and accompanies people throughout their lives. Thus, people perceive themselves helpless and depressed, constantly in need of care and safety. This anxiety can be caused by lack of respect and hostile atmosphere of violence and so on.
Representative neofreydizm, German, Erich Fromm, who is considered the most significant and most representative believed that a person in her mind there is absolutely nothing natural, and all behaviors, thoughts and feelings are the result of immersion of the individual in different social situations and relationships.
So Erich Fromm points out that the nature of each personality type there is no direct impact on the social environment, but also through the duality of human existence: first, people always between life and death, he threw a vague place in troubled times she tried to run, and secondly, everyone is talented and has great potential, but the irony is that soon your life it can not be at full strength to put their talents and potentials.
So Sigmund Freud was a great and very interesting person, he founded the concept of psychological analysis, studied the behavior of people, and his followers, neofreydysts, and not to continue, but mostly complement their research.
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