Problems related to life and death, debates on euthanasia, cloning, and transplantation – affecting fundamental human rights, are studied in the framework of applied ethics. Written many works in our country and abroad, devoted to the development of scientific trends and projects that are simultaneously related to research in the field of life and death. Twenty-first century marks the beginning of a transition to new socio-cultural paradigm, when in modern conditions under the influence of most disasters, wars, assassinations, terrorist attacks and other crimes, valuable attributes of life and death lose their significance.
Many ethical standards are set aside. In this regard, there is urgent need for the development of special science, thanatology, and in several countries, special courses on the issue of death and dying is already included in the curricula of many universities not only in the faculties of medicine and psychology, but philosophy, and law. Respectful attitude to the problem of death, primarily due to respect for the human person, which is significant not only for her family, but also for society as a whole.
The person should be respected not only in his life but also in death. The question of the relation of man to death was analyzed in depth by the famous French historians and anthropologists F. Aries, M. Woolem, O. Thibault, L.-V. Volume, philosophers 3. Freud, W. Stekel, M. Foucault, V. Yankelevich, M. Heidegger, J. Balaam, psychoanalysts Spillane C. and M. Klein.
Currently in philosophy, medicine, bioethics, psychology, history doing it. Obviously, euthanasia is not oscemagazine problem, and concentrates in itself all the anthropological and axiological perspective of modernity and raises fundamental bases of human existence in the world. Euthanasia – as carried out by the hands of physicians deliberate acceleration of death of the sick person (Openwave usually hopelessness of his condition and thoughts of deliverance from suffering) – for 2500 years have rejected in medicine, was condemned in society and punishable by law (as, in particular, testified to a guilty verdict in the case of Nazi physicians who practiced euthanasia in Nazi Germany under the doctrine of “racial hygiene”).
However, since the mid-70s. XX century, attitudes began to change, which resulted in a number of cases of termination perform life-sustaining measures in critically ill patients, court decisions on this issue, in a series of discussions, openly questioned the authority of established standards of medical ethics, including the prohibition of euthanasia, and humanistic tradition as a whole.
Since there are new options of euthanasia (e.g., voluntary form of euthanasia, ie in fact, suicide physician-assisted), and the precedents of its introduction to the Institute “practical humanism”, which is still widely was medicine have multiplied.
This shift of ideological standards cannot be considered as “accidental” precedents or “subjective” variance, it is an expression of the broader trends in the change of man’s natural social life. Methods, forms and means of cognition and transformation of reality in “Prometheus-Paustovskiy”, “man-made” civilization of the West, which until recently was regarded as an absolute benefit, in the last few decades of the twentieth century not only caused a number of crises , such as environmental, demographic, economic etc.
But thanks to the innovations in the field of biomedical technology has created a whole “population” of anthropogenic anthropological risks associated with exposure to human nature and the real possibility of its qualitative transformation (genetic manipulation, cloning, organ transplantation, implantation of microchips, surgery sex change, etc.).
Among these risks is the problem of euthanasia, which, thus, should be considered as originated in the field of medicine, “top of the iceberg” of those conflicts and contradictions resulting from the installation on the transformation first, “natural” second nature, “artificial” and turning it into “the inorganic body of man”. Today, this “nature protection” strategy not only “covered” their artifacts external nature, but asked, finally, and the man himself.
Created by Abdullaeva Zaira