Today it is so important for people of the various countries to understand each other, to work in common. This is possible only in the conditions of direct communication and familiarizing with life, with the culture and traditions of that country which you visit. At the recent rhythm of life and constant deficiency of time it becomes significant to change the occurring opinion on difficulty of a learning foreign language, especially its grammar aspect.
Methodical reform is difficult process. However, as soon as some reforms are superseded by others, more progressive, depends largely on the extent to which a wide range of teachers will accept new approaches and methods and start implementing them. The theory of communication convinces us that it is not enough to know language, the system of language, the rule for the functioning of a language code.
To communicate, it is necessary to know how to use language in a certain context, i.e. to learn a language means today to master speech behavior in a natural context. When teaching the language, it is necessary to develop the skills of free communication in the studied language, that is, to consolidate and develop the obtained skills and abilities in a more complex and new language and informative material for students, based on the spiritual and historical and cultural heritage of the people of the studied language, accumulated over the centuries.
The history of language is a history of the people on speaking it. In this understanding everyone developed national language represents a peculiar style of national expression. It is necessary to develop interactive methods of formation and use of speech etiquette of a learning language for realization of goals, to make the comparative analysis of speech etiquette of both languages, prepare a vocabulary of the most used speech formulas of the language being studied, develop a system of practical exercises and tasks to activate speech etiquette in the speech of students. In each society the etiquette constantly developed as the system of rules, the system of the permissions and the bans organizing in general moral ethical standards.
It is known that speech communication happens against the background of social interaction of people. The social aspect of the communicative act is that each participant in this process is the bearer of a social role in the social situation. The speech etiquette represents rules and norms of a greeting, attracting attention, a request, gratitude, etc.
All these formulas contribute to the development of communication, i.e. carry contact setting function. Without use of etiquette formulas full communication is impossible. Communication is the main social characteristic of the person, one of incentives of mastering the speech. “To communicate fully, the person should have a number of abilities.
He has to be able, firstly, quickly and correctly be guided in the conditions of communication, secondly, correctly plan the speech, thirdly, to find adequate means for transfer of this content, fourthly, to be able to provide feedback. If some of links of the act of communication is broken, it will be ineffective “, writes A.A. Leontyev.
Results of investigation. In the process of learning, it is necessary to determine the characteristics of the contingent of students, their national psychology of communication, in order to fully use the ethno linguistic features of students in teaching their non-native language. From the very beginning it is significant to use cultural material in the lessons which helps learners to acquire better the completed material that in turn promotes stimulation of cognitive interest of students, develops and deepens desire to better know and learn the second language.
It is necessary that learners understood the significance of studying along with a learning language and the culture of the people of a learning language as one of factors of enrichment of own culture and realized necessity of it in future. It is required to teach students not only to speak and write on a learning language, but also to give them a certain reserve of communicative skills and abilities which they could apply in future activity.
Knowledge of specific features of culture of a certain ethnos allows to approach understanding of its national psychology. The final result in teaching the second language is development of the following skills and abilities of students: a) knowledge of culture, traditions and customs of the people of a learning language; b) ability to correctly, shortly and clearly express your thoughts in the language you are learning; d) freely enter the conversation, be able to conduct and complete it. The text can represent both monologues, and dialogues and even a polylogue.
Training students in dialogue or a polylogue, it is necessary to acquaint them with the whole situation which is a text element as well and to train their speech, offering a situation. It is necessary, to enrich lessons with visual material, moreover use rich historical material to make students understand the importance of studying language.
It is considered expedient to allocate the most common units of speech etiquette as sampling units taking into account national cultural specifics. At acquaintance with any subject or the text, learners get acquainted with cultural values; outlook and thinking of the people; customs; admissible and intolerable in the speech, behavior and relations.
In the classroom, it is essential to use material that helps students to adequately perceive the “national picture of the world” of the language being studied. In a modern technique of teaching use of interactive as well as innovative methods is relevant. But it does not mean that teachers of language disciplines have to refuse everything saved up for many years. The innovative activity of the teacher is designed to search for new interactive teaching methods.
The main methods of an interactive technique are studying language in community, training in cooperation. One of them consists in carrying out role-playing games, an interview, brainstorming, exchange of opinions and other. Listening and speaking skills are much more difficult, than reading and writing skills.
Therefore, the technique of teaching language is focused, primarily, on the principle of communication, assuming wide use of educational and speech situations when training in language on the basis of regional geographic, the linguo-regional and language knowledge and abilities. First of all, it is the knowledge of sociocultural features in communication of people in various cases, ability to use the gained knowledge and develop them independently in the course of mastering this culture, readiness to enter foreign-language communication.
In any case, each teacher is recommended to approach creatively selection of material for accomplish of more effective language teaching. Use of game tasks on classes is one of the most effective forms of education. This form helps removal of a linguistic barrier, increases the interest of students in knowledge and enriches their lexicon. Game is the activity peculiar to people since the birth up to old age, activity through which the person learns the world.
Often it is a peculiar preliminary training before serious business which is necessary to the person in life. The game is the recognition and testing of oneself, one’s own strengths and capabilities, the realization of innate needs to be able to do something, this is also the realization of the desire for leadership or rivalry.
It responds to a person’s need to give way to excess life force or, conversely, to recharge. The game takes place in conditions of increased physical, intellectual, emotional activity. It is an essential part of culture. Game is an exercise in interaction with people in various social contexts and roles, the interaction which is carried out by means of typical tools, including language.
Game when training in language: motivates activity at which the speech is the mean of achieving real purpose; grows degree of motivation of students, rising the interest to a subject itself; promotes that students acquire knowledge and gain language experience at own will; creates psychological readiness of students for speech communication, withdraws “psychological barriers”; gives the learner a opportunity to estimate himself against the background of others; creates the an atmosphere of healthy competition, thereby mobilizing the creative potential of students; provides a natural need for repeated repetition of “text and speech material, the assimilation of which is necessary when preparing for speech activity; makes the teaching process more diverse and fascinating.
Game tasks – an effective meaning: a) mastering language tools; b) formation and development of speech mechanisms; c) formation and development of lexical, grammatical, phonetic and speaking skills and abilities. Role-playing games include a talk show, discussions with the set roles, interview games.
Conclusion. It is important to note that preparation for a communicative game (discussion, creation of the scenario, distribution of roles, development of positions, search of arguments and so forth) is a crucial part of the task and has to be held in native language. It is expedient to distinguish types of game tasks depending on those methodical problems which are solved in the course of the game:
1. Game non-communicative tasks are used for assimilation of language forms, lexicon, speech models and also for formation of speech mechanisms.
2. Game pre-communicative tasks are used for formation and development of lexical, grammatical, phonetic and speaking skills and abilities. Tasks of this type allow to carry out, transition from mastering language tools to communication on a learning language. It is necessary to notice that these tasks are not communicative as do not realize a problem of communication, however represent a necessary step on the way to real communication.
3. Game communicative tasks are applied when forming communicative competence, including language psychological, sociolinguistic aspect, in four types of speech activity. Tasks of this type develop ability of students to solve relevant problems of communication with a means of a learning language.
These three types of tasks, consistently and interrelated in the educational process, serve the solution of the holistic task: “It is difficult to make habitual, habitual – easy, and easy to make enjoyable” (K. Stanislavsky).
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Created by Djurayeva L. R.