The activity of human is manifested in various spheres of activity. For example: the natural, social, spiritual, production. Any human activity in any of the areas, mainly aimed at improving the comfort of human’s life.
One of the most important thing in life and human activity plays freedom. It is not just about physical freedom, but spiritual. Freedom is the human capacity to manage their own lives; do anything, guided by their own interests and desires. Freedom allows a person to choose his own way. However, bearing in attention only the above, we can conclude that freedom is the ability to operate only for the satisfaction of their own needs and interests, regardless of others. But it’s not true.
The essence of freedom is not only in the choice of their own path, but finding a man in the human way of existence.
To understand the essence of freedom, we should consider two phenomena such as fatalism and voluntarism. These two concepts are opposite in meaning and completely denying each other. But without finding the point of intersection of fatalism and voluntarism, the implementation of freedom is impossible.
The word “voluntarism” in translation from Latin «voluntas», meaning “freedom”. Voluntarism – a philosophical movement, which emerged in the nineteenth century. Voluntarism – a recognition of the importance of freedom in spiritual life.
Freedom is considered as something irrational, blind, which dictates its own rules and laws to a human. One of the first who established the principle of liberty was Augustine Hippo. He said that it was freedom directs the actions of body and soul, freedom takes inherent in the soul ideas. Operate in terms of voluntarism means to ignore the opinions and interests of others, the laws of nature and society, scilicet operate exclusively on your own mood. So, considering the concept of voluntarism, we can say that this is the freedom of man domination over its thinking.
As fatalism is the opposite of voluntarism, it’s life, her works – everything that happens, fate or determinism explains when each subsequent event closely related to the previous one. Fatalism denies human free choice, and therefore her work.
The essence of fatalism expressed in in three areas, namely the theological, mythological and rationalistic. Theological fatalism says that God even before birth has led some people “to the rescue” and others – “in death.” Mythological fatalism of predestination understands like the dark fate. Rationalistic thought fatalism can be explained by one of the representatives of the direction of Benedict Spinoza. He believed that man is part of nature, which is completely subordinate to its laws. Considering human activity, its activity described in the fatalistic and voluntaristic concepts, we can say the following.
Generate a positive attitude to man can not be both at fatal resignation, pessimism, and in extreme forms of voluntarism. These two concepts are extremes. In contrast, there are concepts of social philosophy of Marxism and Neofreydizm. In these probabilistic concepts development is a process that fails to extremes. Because society is the result of the interaction of various counteracting trends, forces, subjects.
So, summing up, we can say that freedom is something deeper than eliminate external factors. True understanding of freedom – is an internal freedom, the choice of truth, beauty, goodness. Freedom – self-determination. It is a relative concept implements through the understanding of a human plan. Any human activity is primarily a moral and social responsibility, because each action has some impact.
Therefore, each choice of human must be the result of external evaluation capabilities reality, human experience and wealth of inner peace. In fact, it is looking to free choice man can see and determine its spiritual and moral wealth of the individual components and which is guided in his life and work.