Psychologist working with inadequate parent families

inadequate parentAbstract. The article considers social and psychological contexts inadequate parental position as conditions deviant teenagers, and also defines the role of the school psychologist to work with such families. Scientists-deviantology (Dulov, Gilinsky, Klayberg, Komlev, Khagurov) always stresses that recruiting a new generation of children with deviant behavior mainly at the expense of families where violated the socialization process (primarily legal and existential).

The most dangerous with eventological point of view elements of the socialization process are defects in the structure of communication in social control, in performing social roles, which ultimately leads to the formation of personality distorted (deformed) patterns of needs. In families with inadequate parental position substantially changed the whole system of relations, but to the greatest degree of moral relations. The changed attitude, their excessive conflict, lack of proper empathic communication, hiphopera and Hyper provokes neglect, and subsequent homelessness and crime.

Children living in these families are experiencing severe stress. In American classification DSМ-111-R contains a scale for coding psychosocial factors that cause stress and contribute to the development of deviant behavior, as well as exacerbation of a disease (the absence of stress; any stress; oneindia stress; cagily stress; fretherne severe stress; stress catastrophically) [2; 3; 4; 5; 6].

All of the above situations, usually inherent to the homeless, social orphans and juvenile offenders distanceaway for one reason or another from family and school. But the main stress factor, by the opinion E.A.Muchamatulina and G.H.Machortova, the lack of positive interest from the mother, the hostility of the father and his extreme inconsistency [7].

The most actively the problem of the relationship of parenting styles, breach of the parental relationship and deviations in mental development and even the health of children investigated with clinical psychological positions. Identified a number of socio-psychological characteristics of the educational process: 1. the intensity of the emotional contact parents in relation to children: this type of care, guardianship, adoption, rejection; 2. Parameter monitored: licensing, permitting, situational restrictive; 3. Consistency-inconsistency; 4. Emotional stability-instability; 5. there is alarm no alarm.

Different combinations of these parameters education are correlated with different types of neuroses in children [1]. The provision of family support often depends on the parent position of adults in relation to their children. «Parent position is a kind of holistic education is the real focus of educational activities parents arising under the influence of motives education» [10].

Absolutely R.Ovcharova notes that developed in the form of parenting includes: the value orientation of the spouses (family values); parental attitudes and expectations; parent attitudes; parent feelings; parent position; parental responsibility; style family education [8, 11].

Parenting requires new roles and responsibilities as mother’s side and father’s side. In addition, parenting gives them their new social status [7] and creates conditions for the development of parental positions (paternal and maternal). The paternal parent position is integral interaction of masculine sexrole, personal and educational position of the father; it is a system of relations as a parent, which is traditionally manifested in the dominance of the subject-the instrumental function of the father in child rearing.

Parent position is integral interaction between female sex-role, personal and educational position of the mother; it is a system of relations as a parent, which traditionally is manifested in the prevalence of expressive-emotional features of the mother in child rearing. Studies show that S.Zhigalina (2004), maternal and paternal parent positions are a dialectical unity. Their originality and the necessary balance and create optimal conditions for the full development of the child’s personality.

Research and family practice E.Romitcina, I.Khomenko, A.Elizarova, and others, show that many parents rigidly in their attitudes to child, maternal and paternal positions are often not differentiated and are not consistent with each other. It is clear that for the development of a child’s personality is an important harmonization of family relationships, adequate parental position.

Change inadequate stance of the parent (s) is a long and often inefficient in terms of resources expended (emotional, intellectual, temporary is x and other) process. And at the same time position in life – something socially malleable. This can be influenced by (and influence) of various kinds of social transformation.

As pointed out by V.Bakharev and N.Danakin (2009), they are following social transformation: 1. The loss in mass consciousness clear and defined relationship between the income level of a person’s life and his competence, qualifications, public utility profession. For most young people the experience of their parents, once the activities of public interest functions, has long worked for the same company, becomes predominantly negative;

2. Corporatization, clannishness society and the inefficiency of the «social elevators». Social polarization of the population of Russia is characterized not just a significant gap in income. Between social groups are formed not only symbolic, but also quite real boundaries. High status groups concentrate all kinds of socially significant resources: money, power, quality education, high paying jobs, a prestigious leisure activities and entertainment, clean place life and recreation and other high status mostly not achieved, and is inherited;

3. The atomization of society, instability and contextually of social ties. The analysis of the social practices of Russians gives a picture of the prevalence of position loss of sensation itself the subject of life;

4. Strengthening social risks, hazards, the increasing marginalization and outsiders.The. In the modern Russian society social exclusion and exclusion became widespread in the radical transition from total state dirigisme of the Soviet period to a libertarian form of government policies and practices in the 90-ies. At the behavioral level is the result of social outsiders. The becomes escapism, self-injury or aggression directed against real or alleged perpetrators of such situation. The outsider does not consider itself bound by the norms of the society that rejected him, and often revenge him;

5. Normative relativism caused by excessively rapid and radical changes in the system of values in society. As a result, in the public consciousness formed the normative value porridge;

6. The reduction of the sphere of state youth policy, its bureaucratization and formalization;

7. Dissemination of criminal subculture, particularly evident in the 90- ies, when many of its bearers took the leading positions in politics. However, in the basis of the distortion of the parent position, as indicated O.Karabanova (2001), often lays a rejection of the child. Attributing negative qualities, the invalidation thereby act as a rationalization of their rejection of the child, the manifestation of the protective reaction of the parent with the aim of preserving a positive selfattitude and self-esteem by discrediting the «other». A.Spivakovskaya (1991) developed a classification of parental positions.

She believes that the parent’s position as a collection of plants of the parents in interaction with the child exists in three levels: emotional, cognitive and behavioral, identifies the following criteria parent position:

• adequacy inadequate; this criterion reflects the extent to which parents perceive the individual characteristics of the child, which is manifested in the phenomenon prescriptions parents the child or other qualities; the degree and sign of distortion in the perception of the child can be different (cognitive component);

• Dynamic – rigidity, i.e. the degree of mobility of the parent positions, the ability to change forms and methods of interaction with children (cognitive, and behavioral components);

• The predictive – geprognosticeerde, i.e. the ability of parents to extrapolation, prediction of future development of the child and the ability to build interactions with your child with this prediction (cognitive and behavioral components).

Moreover, the emotional component is manifested in all settings parental position. For disharmonious families, according to A.Spivakovskaya (1999), characterized by inadequacy, rigidity, geprognosticeerde parent position. It also distinguishes four pathogenic type of education:

1) low cohesion and differences of family education;
2) a high degree of inconsistency, inconsistency, inadequacy;
3) a high degree of care and didactic in any spheres of life of children;
4) increased stimulation of the capabilities of children.

In this regard, the frequent use of threats, condemnation. Thus, under the parent’s position A.Spivakovskaya (1999) understands «a kind of holistic education, real directional orientation and educational activities parents arising under the influence of motives education». Parent position manifests itself in the interaction and the relationship with the child and depends on the balance between conscious and unconscious motives.

Obviously something else: parent position is characterized by a certain style of behavior and models of family education. Violations, corruption, inadequate parental position are due to inadequate translation rigid and ineffective models of education, low level of psychological, social and pedagogical competence of parents, as well as the dysfunction of the family system and, as a consequence, the transformation of the parent position in inadequate and, finally, individual characteristics of the parent.

Based on the analysis of the available published scientific literature and our own research experience, I believe that parental attitude towards education of children can come in two types: adequate (harmonious) and inadequate (destructive) type, you should consider the school psychologist in their diagnostic and remedial work with troubled families and children of these families.

Adequate (harmonious) type parent position is characterized by:
– mutual emotional acceptance, empathy, emotional support;
– high level of satisfaction of the needs of all family members, including children;
– recognition of the rights of the child on the independent choice of development path, the promotion of the autonomy of the child; the relationship of mutual respect, equality in decision making in problem situations; recognition of self
– value of the child’s personality and refusal attempts manipulative strategy education; based on the age and individual personality characteristics, reasonable and adequate to the requirements of the requirements of the child;
– systematic control with subsequent transfer of control functions the child and the transition to self-management;
– reasonable and adequate system of sanctions and rewards;
– stability, consistency education while upholding the right of every parent to their own concept of education and systematic changes in the system of education in accordance with the age of the child. Inadequate (destructive) type parent position is characterized by:
– a lack of emotional acceptance of the child, emotional rejection and ambivalent attitude, lack of reciprocity;
– low level of cohesion parents and disagreements in the family in the upbringing of children;
– a high level of inconsistency, the inconsistency in the relationship of parent (s) with children;
– agradecimentos in various spheres of life;
– overestimation of the requirements of the child or lack of rigor, permissiveness; the non – constructive nature of the control, low parental monitoring, excessive sanctions or their complete absence; – increased conflict, physical and verbal aggression, violence;
– deficiency or excessiveness meet the needs of the child;
– the inadequacy of maternal and paternal relations[3; 4; 5; 6].

In the scientific literature (Yu.Klayberg, G.Shikhantsev) also indicates that the process of positive socialization of the child was deformed to a greater extent family and school education:

1). Parents and teachers word and deed (his actions) argue immoral or even antisocial behavior patterns. In this case you can get a direct assimilation of the child (teenager) standards antisocial behavior.

2). Parents and educators on the words adhere to generally accepted standards of behavior, but do deeds that contradict them. In this case, the children brought up the hypocrisy, bigotry, in General immoral installation.

3). Parents and teachers verbal and actually adhere to conventional norms, but it does not satisfy the emotional needs of a child (teenager). The absence of strong emotional, friendly contacts parents with teenagers significantly impedes the normal process of socialization.

4). Parents and teachers apply educational methods based on coercion, violence, humiliation of a child (teenager). In families and schools, which are characterized by the most profound defects of socialization, children are almost entirely without adult supervision and wittingly or unwittingly provoked by neglect, homelessness, vagrancy, begging prostitution and crime.

Our scientists more fully elucidated those families who need social, psychological and pedagogical support and child protection. There are interesting, in my opinion, the classification of different types of families (G.Shikhantsev, 1998; A.Skorokhodova, 1999; I.Bashkatov, 2002 and others). More on this in [1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6].

Different types of parental positions as systems of relations parent due to certain parental goals, values, attitudes and motives. In turn they give educational practice family specific character. Thus, the parent family is the most important factor of socialization and personality development of the child. She has specific mechanisms of influence on the younger person. The influence of family depends on its educational potential and other objective and subjective factors. Thus, the parent position in family upbringing performs a regulatory function [3; 4].

The process of primary socialization in families with inadequate parental position clearly distorted and requires already in the first phase of heightened attention on the part of school psychologists in the plan of correction, psychological support and maintenance.


1. Zdravomyslova O.A. Domestic Violence and the crisis of the traditional concept of education // Social pedagogy. – 2005. – №1.
2. Klayberg Y.A. Fundamentals of psychology of deviant behavior. SPb, 2014.
3. Klayberg Y.A. Juvenile psychology of deviant behavior. – Nalchik, 2013.
4. Klayberg Y.A. Psychology of families with inadequate parental position // the Organization of work with youth: interdisciplinary integration of theory and practice. Collective monograph / Ed. by A.Zelenin, M.Yanitsky. – Kemerovo, 2012. P.88-105.
5. Klayberg Yu.A. Juvenile Deviantology. – Saarbrücken: Palmarium Publishing, Germany, 2012.
6. Klayberg Y.A. Deviant behavior in questions and answers. – 2nd ed. – M., 2008.
7. Craig G., Bokum D. Developmental Psychology. 9th ed. – SPb, 2004. – (Series «Masters of Psychology»).
8. Ovcharova R. Psychological support parenting. M., 2003.
9. Developmental psychology / Ed. T.D.Marcinkowskaya. – M., 2001.
10. Shnayder L. Family psychology: a textbook. – 2nd ed. – M., 2006.

Created by Yury Klayberg

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