Ethical and philosophical teachings of Karl-Otto Apel

apelThe famous of the 20th century German philosopher Karl-Otto Apel has been exposed in the formation of the Anglo-American and German philosophical thought. Philosophy of Karl-Otto Apel played a major role in the development of German philosophy, as well as the transformation of Jurgen Habermas views. His philosophy took place in several stages of development, which was based on the philosophies of Emmanuel Kant and Johann Fichte.

Works of Martin Heidegger and Ludwig Wittgenstein, which were dedicated to philosophical problems associated with the language influenced Appeals. The German philosopher Peirce worked also on the doctrine in question of transcendental semiotics and he managed to improve this issue. Following its predecessors philosopher created his philosophy of language. With serves the basis for understanding society, perception of history and ethics of discourse.

Ethics discourse stems from the need to master the consensus in the interaction between people, which acts as a medium of discourse that argument in the norms already contains all the necessary means to achieve consensus. The essence of the moral development of mankind lies in the ability to form moral judgments, and allocate human idea of mutual interests. All previous attempts to formulate the main principle of morality, according to the philosopher, were the so-called intuitive guessing early, discursive principle, but in all of then there were drawbacks.

So, according to the Appeals follows that the basis for making moral consensus occupies an important place within the universe of all wills, as agents of consensus are all those who related to it, even those who wanted to participate, but do not allow physical abilities. The important role in the discourse played mutual solutions and mutual responsibility.

The main difference in ethics discourse of Karl-Otto Apel from of Jurgen Habermas ethics discourse is that, first you need to find and prove the confirmation of morality and truth. In this regard, there is a drawback, which is abstract and irrelevant towards real ethical problems. All efforts of the philosopher, are focusing manily on the study of a single principle and methods of application of this principle. In my opinion, applying a single principle, it is impossible to prove all moral experience.

Are also important for us in theoretical works of the philosopher? Such terms as “meta-ethics” and “global consensus language.” Meta-ethics by of Appeals is characterized the global, regulatory factors and standards. The term “global consensus language” philosopher explains as global responsibility, which must be the main basis for global understanding. In this case, everyone should be aware of their responsibility for the communication process and a common discourse.

According to Karl-Otto Apel, the situation of that time dictated the need for awareness of “collective responsibility” and the development of universally meaningful ethics for all. “The philosopher also stressed the importance of continuing dialogue and reasoned discussion of problems. He believed that the solution to the problem is possible by means of dialogue.

“Theoretical architectonic” of the philosopheus based on two aspects. The firstis provided by general philosophical discourse of ethics status, while the secondis provided by a privileged position discourse of justification, and with it by the “the transformation of philosophy”.

The basic Appeal’s concept is the concept as arguments and concept of ideal and real communication of the communities and confrontation between them.

In one of his works Karl-Otto Apel formulated demand of “linguistic turn”. He believes that linguistic turn helps to produce inter-learn true knowledge that can not be explained by the structure of consciousness, but in the systematic study of language it can be achieved by symbolic mediated knowledge.

“The transformation of philosophy ” of German philosopher occupies an important place in the doctrine of the German philosopher. Encompassing linguistic twists and pragmatic of the philosophy of that time, he distinguishes between traditional “philosophy of consciousness” or, as the author calls it “philosophy of final first principles.”

It is also important to mention the so-called Apells “transcendental-hermeneutic ‘departure from Gadamer, is historicism where the philosopher said about his gradual interpretation, pointed not only to significantly different approach to understanding, but also intended to excite implicit claim to truth as accuracy, which can be clarified with the new principles – in relation to the ideal community of communication. Apel also did not exclude the possibility of causal explanatory patterns and functional mechanisms for the disclosure of the systematic distortion of communication that are subject to investigation as how communication “is open to debate through reflexive gain the understanding of aspects of communication.”

In some of his works Apel also highlights the main guidelines transcendental pragmatics in its criticism of “critical rationalism”. He believes that the skepticism of his predecessors with regard to the possibility of a final philosophical justification based on “mistake abstraction”, that is the approach in which the sentences are considered to be isolated from their contexts pragmatic argument. He searched also “principle of fallibilizm” (This principle suggests that any statement can, be challenged).

And it has meaning only within the “Institute of reasoning” in which some pragmatic rules and regulations are not subject to the request. So, just to the contrary to the requirement of critical rationalism, principle fallibilizm of does not exclude the concept of philosophical justification and, as Apel, proves it can not occupy the place of the basic principle of rational discourse.

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