Science is a social phenomenon. Science – is the work of scientists in a particular area to achieve the truth knowledge. Such activities are based on special laws, rules, principles of human life, and these aspects in turn is a certain set of legal, political, administrative regulators of every individual society life in various spheres of life. The current state of society shows that along with the traditional aspects increased the role of moral and ethical aspects of science development. Today the science has reached the point that it can influence on the processes taking place in the world and it also can change their essence, nature and results but sometimes these changes are used for the benefit of mankind and sometimes hurt it. Most knowledge is neither good, nor evil, it’s just opening a new, but it all depends on whom, how and for what purposes use it. The results of scientific research and their impact on society will depend on this.
Just as there was and there is great scientific – technical progress, today appears urgent question of the importance of values and norms of science. He threatens life on the Earth, requires changes to the field values of society and motivational sphere. The interest increased in issues of philosophy, morality and began the search for new moral compass that is caused by the destruction of established ethical norms, crisis attitudes. That is what led to the fact that many modern scholars are thinking about universal values and there are interconnection of science between them.
This indicates that scientists want to refocus the science for more important and universal values than the truth. Giving the growth of science, technology and their role in society, the transformation of the research in science into independent sphere the interest begins to increase in ethical issues in the science. More recently people believed that ethical issues in the science occur only in rare cases and in respect of certain specific areas of expertise. But now we know that scientific – technical progress provokes the emergence of new ethical problems. Today scientists – researchers that pay a lot of attention to the humanistic, moral, social, ethical approach in science and this contributes to a particular area – the ethics of science.
Scientific – technological revolution has changed the conception of person, the originality of its existence.
Especially scientific technological revolution has contributed to the development of science in biology and medicine. This knowledge will help to give a chance to interfere to the natural processes of birth, flow and completion of the life. Development of a medicine takes place in the following areas: transplantation, cloning, genetic engineering, as great progress in the diagnosis, different methods of human reproduction, medical, scientific experiments on animals and humans. But this is what has given impetus to the emergence of many health problems that had not become the person.
In Ukrainian philosophy scientists who consider the ethics of science are widely considered experiments in Western and American scientists, using universal norms and concepts, using them the problems of good and evil, duty, honor and so on are considered . These rules should be taken into account during both theoretical and practical activities. Many Ukrainian scientists highlight the conditions and causes of the bioethics. But at the same time, some researchers, such as S. Vyekovshynina, consider bioethics as a way (means) resolution of ethical problems in biomedicine, setting that bioethics gives knowledge of bioethics medical ethics, and provides the ability to analyze, helps to look at the problem in a socio-cultural and interdisciplinary contexts, fostering responsibility for their actions and activities, compassion for all living things.
Kiselev analyzed the biological and ecological ethics because of practical philosophy, deeply studying their meaning, subject, problems. The scientist points out and underlines the fact that bioethics does not have an aim to ban or curb the innovative biological technologies which are linked with the future of society. Analyzing the phenomenon of bioethics Alexander Perov pays your attention to the diversity of its manifestations. She thinks that ethical issues in science arise like biological technologies do not have specific limits in carrying out research and in the application of the results. And since the results in science relates and implements in the environment of people, often arises a situation when choosing between research results and the effects do not play the important role of moral principles that can lead to self-destruction of a person.
In own research Petrova indicates that all ways of solution problems in bioethics lead to biological philosophy – which is complex, biologically oriented, integrative, interdisciplinary branch of knowledge. It reveals methodological, philosophical, epistemological problems of existence. This researcher from foreign and Ukrainian philosophy of biological concepts determines the reasons that it causes and conditions, explores basic issues.
Petrova pays attention to the explaining of the subject and object of environmental philosophy and that the process of creating a normal subject is looking for methods and methodological tools.
B. Kulinichenko sets preconditions and basis for the creation of modern biological ethics, pointing out that its principles are used, but have no clear philosophical or theoretical, philosophical or historical basis. To connect these principles in a whole we need to uncover common values. Only with the understanding of concepts such as death and life made possible the emergence and existence of modern medical and biological knowledge in terms of humanization.
In the study of the work of Western scientists – philosophers, Kulinichenko concluded that the principles of bioethics can be included the life and his philosophy, phenomenology, which is contributed to the fact that there is a moral responsibility as an object of discussion of philosophers, scientists, specialists from different parts of human activity.
At the same time analysis of biological precondition ethics preconditions is appropriated to implement in a broad social and cultural context. Such as the emergence of biological ethics is not only ethical dimension of human activity, but also features states of culture in the world.
According to Elena Petrova modern biological ethics is an important development of ideas about living. She considers different concepts concluded that the biological disciplines knowledge of life creates in bringing knowledge from different fields. And bioethics is no exception; it is based on biology, ethics and sectors that are linked to these disciplines. Cognitive Approaches to the bioethics become a space for theoretical search. Bioethics is the study of approaches to living in modern science.
Having read the works of some scientists we can conclude that solving problems of biological ethics the principles are being made. This includes- unity of ethics and life – this is a profound responsibility and interdependence of these two aspects. Harmonization principle – “nature – a man(person)”; recognition of life as the highest category, which is also the highest among all the ethical values.
Consequently, the norms of scientific ethics, research activities are influenced by various factors, including objective and subjective. In the scientific world ethical norms are formed in the development process.
As it was noted above, modern science is based on the ethical teaching. It’s all because of rapid scientific development. Many experiments in our time are directed at a person and if you do not use ethical standards, then all humanity will suffer, will not be humanism and everyone will do what he wants, we will not be secured. And this is the main ethical issues of science.