In the last paragraph of absolute knowing, recollection (Erinnerung) comes on the stage as a leading actor which plays a significant role in achieving a whole complete system.
The Phenomenology of Spirit, as the science of experience of consciousness, begins its process with the most primitive form of consciousness and gradually penetrates to true knowing or to absolute knowing.
Throughout its self-educating process, consciousness tests the actuality of its knowledge which means that it tests whether its notion corresponds to its object. Continue reading
There is a contemporary scholarly consensus that the Popperian characterization of Hegel’s politics as totalitarian is mistaken.
However, Roger Scruton also rejects the view put forward by many Hegel scholars that Hegel is some form of liberal and or communitarian thinker.
Rather, Scruton argues that Hegel’s vision of the state is best characterized as a form of classical conservative political philosophy. Continue reading
John Brown, Scottish physician, 1791. Brown (1735-1788) proposed the Brunonian system of medicine which had two classes of disease; sthenic (resulting…
This paper aims to explore the reception of the biological concept of ‘excitability’ in early nineteenth century German philosophy, in order to examine Hegel’s mobilisation of this concept in his Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences.
Firstly, this will involve addressing John Brown’s introduction of ‘excitability’ [in his Elementa Medicinae, 1780] as an fundamental characteristic of the animal organism which can be brought into play in a theory of medicine.
Secondly, the paper will address the reception of this concept in early nineteenth century German philosophy, which was important in the work of thinkers such as Roschlaub, Kielmayer, Fichte and Schelling. Continue reading
This paper attempts to elucidate Flusser’s understanding of human history, comparing and contrasting it with that given by Hegel.
It is one of Hegel’s central claims that reason rules reality; hence the task of philosophy is to comprehend that world history is nothing but the execution of God’s plans.
Is this account of history one expects –demands, even – from a philosopher who also admits that world history is a slaughter bench? Continue reading
In Sigmund Freud’s early pre-psychoanalytical monograph, “The Project for a Scientific Psychology,” we find the first formulation of ideas that would become central to his psychoanalytical understanding of mental phenomena.
While interesting from the standpoint of the development of psychoanalytical concepts, this text interests us mainly because of the rather powerful psychophysical account of mental phenomenon that he offers there.
From the beginning, Freud’s main goal in the Project was to offer a compelling account of defense. Continue reading
In his seminar «La bête et le souverain» Derrida shows that the philosophical position of many thinkers with respect to animality is compound and ambiguous.
The “Lacan case” has especially complicated matters.
The paper analyzes this delicate lacanian stance through its convoluted and retorse arguments. Continue reading
In the political theories of the “classical” social contract philosophers, the social contract marks a pivotal moment of transformation for mankind.
Rather than simply working out a justification for government, social contract theory provides an explanation for the coming into being of mankind. In other words, while the establishing within reason of a government appears as the purported objective content of the classic texts of the period, namely between Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau, that is not the end of the story. Continue reading
One of the more striking aspects of the work of the little-known early modern philosopher Arnold Geulincx (1624-1669) is his incorporation of a conception of ‘beatitude’ into an otherwise strongly rationalistic variant of Cartesianism.
The beatitude Geulincx describes takes the form of a very particular kind of intellectual joy and eternal happiness, beyond (though not cancelling out) our earthly passions and the pleasures of this life.
Accordingly, this paper will explore the metaphysical and physical underpinnings of Geulincx’s ethics from the Continue reading
Last decades are characterized by in the number of military conflicts on religion and ethnicity, which lead to activation of non-state actors. These include international institutions, non-governmental humanitarian organizations, multinational corporations, and also terrorist organizations, guerrilla and separatist movements, the activity of which is accompanied by a large number of victims and destruction. Continue reading
We are witnessing the global recession of democracy nowadays. That is why this phenomenon is something more than just a political regime that recognizes the principle of equality and freedom of all people and their active participation in political life. It is an aggregate of values that influence the process of how the society is functioning. Democracy became the doctrine that many countries are aspiring to implement. That is why understanding of the democracy is crucial in today’s political life. Continue reading